KEGG   DISEASE: Thyroid cancerHelp
Entry
H00032                      Disease                                

Name
Thyroid cancer
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells.  Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of endocrine organs
   H00032  Thyroid cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C73-C75  Malignant neoplasms of thyroid and other endocrine glands
   C73  Malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland
    H00032  Thyroid cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00032
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Thyroid cancer
Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
Gene
RET/PTC1 (rearrangement) [HSA:5979 8030] [KO:K05126 K09288]
RET/PTC3 (rearrangement) [HSA:5979 8031] [KO:K05126 K09289]
TPM3/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:4914 7170] [KO:K03176 K09290]
TPR/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:7175 7170] [KO:K09291 K09290]
TFG/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:10342 7170] [KO:K09292 K09290]
H-ras (mutation) [HSA:3265] [KO:K02833]
K-ras (mutation) [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
N-ras (mutation) [HSA:4893] [KO:K07828]
BRAF (mutation) [HSA:673] [KO:K04365]
PAX8/PPARgamma (rearrangement) [HSA:7849 5468] [KO:K09293 K08530]
beta-Catenin (mutation) [HSA:1499] [KO:K02105]
p53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
E-cadherin (downregulation) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
Carcinogen
Radium-224 and its decay products [CPD:C16455]
Radioiodines, short-lived isotopes, including iodine131, from atomic reactor accidents and nuclear
Marker
Thyroglobulin [HSA:7038] [KO:K10809]
Drug
Sodium iodide I 131 [DR:D02259]
Sorafenib [DG:DG00713]
Sunitinib [DG:DG00712]
Pazopanib [DR:D05380]
Vandetanib [DR:D06407]
Comment
ICD-O: 8260/3, Tumor type: Papillary carcinoma
ICD-O: 8330/3, Tumor type: Follicular carcinoma
ICD-O: 8020/3, Tumor type: Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:16557281 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
PMID:16831036 (tumor type)
  Authors
Al-Brahim N, Asa SL.
  Title
Papillary thyroid carcinoma: an overview.
  Journal
Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:1057-62 (2006)
DOI:10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[1057:PTCAO]2.0.CO;2
Reference
PMID:16807500 (tumor type)
  Authors
Lin JD, Chao TC.
  Title
Follicular thyroid carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.
  Journal
Endocr J 53:441-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1507/endocrj.KR-77
Reference
PMID:15521953 (tumor type)
  Authors
Bojunga J, Zeuzem S.
  Title
Molecular detection of thyroid cancer: an update.
  Journal
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 61:523-30 (2004)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02131.x
Reference
PMID:11165748 (gene)
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
PMID:16189702 (gene)
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
PMID:10564925 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Nekolla EA, Kellerer AM, Kuse-Isingschulte M, Eder E, Spiess H.
  Title
Malignancies in patients treated with high doses of radium-224.
  Journal
Radiat Res 152:S3-7 (1999)
DOI:10.2307/3580102
Reference
PMID:11340615 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Rabes HM.
  Title
Gene rearrangements in radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Med Pediatr Oncol 36:574-82 (2001)
DOI:10.1002/mpo.1133
Reference
PMID:9743453 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Hall P, Holm LE.
  Title
Radiation-associated thyroid cancer--facts and fiction.
  Journal
Acta Oncol 37:325-30 (1998)
DOI:10.1080/028418698430539
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education
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