KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00010Help
Entry
ko00010                     Pathway                                

Name
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Description
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
ko00010

Ortholog table
Module
M00001  Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate [PATH:ko00010]
M00002  Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:ko00010]
M00003  Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P [PATH:ko00010]
M00114  Ascorbate biosynthesis, plants, glucose-6P => ascorbate [PATH:ko00010]
M00265  PTS system, glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00266  PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00272  PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00307  Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:ko00010]
M00809  PTS system, glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
Disease
H00069  Glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
H00071  Hereditary fructose intolerance
H00072  Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
H00114  Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
H00664  Anemia due to disorders of glycolytic enzymes
H01071  Acute alcohol sensitivity
H01096  Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency
H01267  Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HHF)
H01760  Hepatic glycogen storage disease
H01762  Muscle glycogen storage disease
H01939  Glycogen storage disease type I
H01945  Glycogen storage disease type VII
H01946  Glycogen storage disease type XI
H01951  Glycogen storage disease type X
H01952  Glycogen storage disease type XII
H01953  Glycogen storage disease type XIII
H01954  Glycogen storage disease type XIV
H01997  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency
H01998  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-beta deficiency
H01999  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
H02000  Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency
Other DBs
BSID: 287
GO: 0006096 0006094
Orthology
K00844  hexokinase [EC:2.7.1.1]
K12407  glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K00845  glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K01810  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9]
K06859  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, archaeal [EC:5.3.1.9]
K13810  transaldolase / glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9 2.2.1.2]
K15916  glucose/mannose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.8 5.3.1.9]
K00850  6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K16370  6-phosphofructokinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K21071  ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase / diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90 2.7.1.11]
K00918  ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase/glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147 2.7.1.146]
K00895  diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90]
K03841  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I [EC:3.1.3.11]
K02446  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II [EC:3.1.3.11]
K11532  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K01086  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K04041  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase III [EC:3.1.3.11]
K01623  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K11645  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01624  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class II [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01622  fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
K16305  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
K16306  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
K01803  triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) [EC:5.3.1.1]
K00134  glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.12]
K10705  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic [EC:1.2.1.12]
K00150  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)) [EC:1.2.1.59]
K00927  phosphoglycerate kinase [EC:2.7.2.3]
K01834  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K15633  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15634  probable phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15635  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K01689  enolase [EC:4.2.1.11]
K00873  pyruvate kinase [EC:2.7.1.40]
K12406  pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L [EC:2.7.1.40]
K00163  pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00161  pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00162  pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component beta subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00627  pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 component (dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase) [EC:2.3.1.12]
K00382  dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [EC:1.8.1.4]
K00169  pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase alpha subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00170  pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase beta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00172  pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase gamma subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00171  pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase delta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K03737  pyruvate-ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.2.7.- 1.2.7.1]
K00174  2-oxoglutarate/2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.2.7.11 1.2.7.3]
K00175  2-oxoglutarate/2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.2.7.11 1.2.7.3]
K00016  L-lactate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.27]
K01568  pyruvate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.1]
K13951  alcohol dehydrogenase 1/7 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13980  alcohol dehydrogenase 4 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00121  S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.1.1.284]
K13952  alcohol dehydrogenase 6 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K04072  acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.2.1.10]
K13953  alcohol dehydrogenase, propanol-preferring [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13954  alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K18857  alcohol dehydrogenase class-P [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00001  alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00002  alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.2]
K14028  methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 1 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K14029  methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 2 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K00114  alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) [EC:1.1.2.8]
K04022  alcohol dehydrogenase
K22473  alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone), dehydrogenase subunit [EC:1.1.5.5]
K22474  alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone), cytochrome c subunit [EC:1.1.5.5]
K00128  aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:1.2.1.3]
K14085  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.8 1.2.1.31]
K00149  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 9 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.47]
K00129  aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) [EC:1.2.1.5]
K00138  aldehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.-]
K01895  acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1]
K01905  acetate---CoA ligase (ADP-forming) subunit alpha [EC:6.2.1.13]
K22224  acetate---CoA ligase (ADP-forming) subunit beta [EC:6.2.1.13]
K01785  aldose 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.3]
K01085  glucose-1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.10]
K20866  glucose-1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.10]
K01835  phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2]
K15778  phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2 5.4.2.8]
K15779  phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
K01084  glucose-6-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.9]
K00886  polyphosphate glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.63]
K08074  ADP-dependent glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147]
K01792  glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.15]
K01837  bisphosphoglycerate/phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11 5.4.2.4]
K03103  multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase / 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.80 3.1.3.62]
K11389  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin) [EC:1.2.7.6]
K00131  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.9]
K18978  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] [EC:1.2.1.90]
K01596  phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) [EC:4.1.1.32]
K01610  phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [EC:4.1.1.49]
K01222  6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K01223  6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K02777  PTS system, sugar-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K02778  PTS system, glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K02779  PTS system, glucose-specific IIC component
K02790  PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.208 2.7.1.199]
K02791  PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific IIC component
K20116  PTS system, glucose-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K20117  PTS system, glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K20118  PTS system, glucose-specific IIC component
K02752  PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K02753  PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific IIC component
Compound
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00031  D-Glucose
C00033  Acetate
C00036  Oxaloacetate
C00068  Thiamin diphosphate
C00074  Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00103  D-Glucose 1-phosphate
C00111  Glycerone phosphate
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00186  (S)-Lactate
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00221  beta-D-Glucose
C00236  3-Phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate
C00267  alpha-D-Glucose
C00469  Ethanol
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01159  2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerate
C01172  beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01451  Salicin
C05125  2-(alpha-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
C05345  beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C06186  Arbutin
C06187  Arbutin 6-phosphate
C06188  Salicin 6-phosphate
C15972  Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine
C15973  Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine
C16255  [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)
LinkDB All DBs

DBGET integrated database retrieval system