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Entry
pon00120                    Pathway                                

Name
Primary bile acid biosynthesis - Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan)
Description
Bile acids are steroid carboxylic acids derived from cholesterol in vertebrates. The primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, are synthesized in the liver and conjugated with taurine or glycine before secretion via bile into the intestine. The conversion from cholesterol to cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids involves four steps: 1) the initiation of synthesis by 7alpha-hydroxylation of sterol precursors, 2) further modifications to the ring structures, 3) side-chain oxidation and shortening (cleavage) by three carbons, and 4) conjugation of the bile acid with taurine or glycine.
Class
Metabolism; Lipid metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
pon00120  Primary bile acid biosynthesis
pon00120

Ortholog table
Module
pon_M00104  Bile acid biosynthesis, cholesterol => cholate/chenodeoxycholate [PATH:pon00120]
pon_M00106  Conjugated bile acid biosynthesis, cholate => taurocholate/glycocholate [PATH:pon00120]
Organism
Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) [GN:pon]
Gene
100440873  cholesterol 24-hydroxylase isoform X1 [KO:K07440] [EC:1.14.14.25]
100458771  24-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase isoform X1 [KO:K07439] [EC:1.14.14.26]
100460204  HSD3B7; 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K12408] [EC:1.1.1.181]
100452872  CH25H; cholesterol 25-hydroxylase [KO:K10223] [EC:1.14.99.38]
100439228  25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase [KO:K07430] [EC:1.14.14.29]
100457945  cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase [KO:K00489] [EC:1.14.14.23]
100451841  sterol 26-hydroxylase, mitochondrial [KO:K00488] [EC:1.14.15.15]
100433242  7-alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one 12-alpha-hydroxylase isoform X1 [KO:K07431] [EC:1.14.13.96 1.14.18.8]
100456267  AKR1D1; 3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenase isoform X1 [KO:K00251] [EC:1.3.1.3]
100434557  AKR1C4; aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 isoform X1 [KO:K00037] [EC:1.1.1.225 1.1.1.357 1.1.1.50]
100450572  SLC27A5; bile acyl-CoA synthetase isoform X1 [KO:K08748] [EC:6.2.1.7]
100171562  AMACR; alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase [KO:K01796] [EC:5.1.99.4]
100173031  ACOX2; peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 2 [KO:K10214] [EC:1.17.99.3]
100448539  HSD17B4; peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 [KO:K12405] [EC:4.2.1.119 4.2.1.107 1.1.1.35]
100173072  SCP2; non-specific lipid-transfer protein [KO:K08764] [EC:2.3.1.176]
100173249  ACOT8; acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 8 isoform X1 [KO:K11992] [EC:3.1.2.27]
100431907  BAAT; bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase [KO:K00659] [EC:3.1.2.2 2.3.1.65]
Compound
C00037  Glycine
C00187  Cholesterol
C00245  Taurine
C00695  Cholic acid
C01301  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-al
C01794  Choloyl-CoA
C01921  Glycocholate
C02528  Chenodeoxycholate
C03594  7alpha-Hydroxycholesterol
C04554  3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate
C04722  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoate
C05122  Taurocholate
C05337  Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA
C05444  3alpha,7alpha,26-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane
C05445  3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-al
C05446  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestane
C05447  3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA
C05448  3alpha,7alpha,24-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA
C05449  3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-24-oxocholestanoyl-CoA
C05450  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,24-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA
C05451  7alpha-Hydroxy-5beta-cholestan-3-one
C05452  3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestane
C05453  7alpha,12alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-3-one
C05454  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane
C05455  7alpha-Hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one
C05460  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA
C05465  Taurochenodeoxycholate
C05466  Glycochenodeoxycholate
C05467  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-24-oxocholestanoyl-CoA
C05468  5beta-Cyprinolsulfate
C06341  7alpha,27-Dihydroxycholesterol
C13550  Cerebrosterol
C15518  (24S)-Cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,24-triol
C15519  25-Hydroxycholesterol
C15520  Cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,25-triol
C15610  Cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol
C15613  (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA
C17331  7alpha,24-Dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one
C17332  7alpha,25-Dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one
C17333  3beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestenoate
C17335  3beta,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5-cholestenoate
C17336  7alpha,26-Dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one
C17337  7alpha-Hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoate
C17339  4-Cholesten-7alpha,12alpha-diol-3-one
C17343  (25S)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA
C17345  (25R)-3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA
C17346  (25S)-3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Russell DW
  Title
The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis.
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 72:137-74 (2003)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161712
Reference
  Authors
Norlin M, Wikvall K
  Title
Enzymes in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids.
  Journal
Curr Mol Med 7:199-218 (2007)
DOI:10.2174/156652407780059168
Reference
  Authors
Vlahcevic ZR, Pandak WM, Stravitz RT
  Title
Regulation of bile acid biosynthesis.
  Journal
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 28:1-25, v (1999)
DOI:10.1016/S0889-8553(05)70041-8
Reference
  Authors
Pellicoro A, Faber KN
  Title
Review article: The function and regulation of proteins involved in bile salt biosynthesis and transport.
  Journal
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 26 Suppl 2:149-60 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03522.x
Reference
  Authors
Hofmann AF, Hagey LR
  Title
Bile acids: chemistry, pathochemistry, biology, pathobiology, and therapeutics.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2461-83 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-008-7568-6
Reference
  Authors
Schwarz M, Wright AC, Davis DL, Nazer H, Bjorkhem I, Russell DW
  Title
The bile acid synthetic gene 3beta-hydroxy-Delta(5)-C(27)-steroid oxidoreductase is mutated in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 106:1175-84 (2000)
DOI:10.1172/JCI10902
Reference
  Authors
Ridlon JM, Kang DJ, Hylemon PB
  Title
Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria.
  Journal
J Lipid Res 47:241-59 (2006)
DOI:10.1194/jlr.R500013-JLR200
Reference
PMID:9292932
  Authors
Bortolini O, Medici A, Poli S
  Title
Biotransformations on steroid nucleus of bile acids.
  Journal
Steroids 62:564-77 (1997)
DOI:10.1016/S0039-128X(97)00043-3
KO pathway
ko00120   
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