KEGG    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human) Help
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Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains more than 20 members in mammals and plays a pivotal role in the recognition of intracellular ligands. NOD1 and NOD2, two prototypic NLRs, sense the cytosolic presence of the bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that escaped from endosomal compartments, driving the activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, cytokine production and apoptosis. On the other hand, a different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. These NLRs include NALP1, NALP3 and Ipaf. The inflammasomes are critical for generating mature proinflammatory cytokines in concert with Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.