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KEGG Pathogen Resource

KEGG Pathogen is an interface to infectious disease information in KEGG for understanding molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) from genomic information. In addition, a new tool named Pathogen Checker, is being developed for inferring AMR from pathogen genomes.


Antimicrobial Resistance

Efforts are being undertaken to define characteristic genes and gene sets in pathogen genomes that would have diagnostic values for detecting antimicrobial resistance. They are signature KOs and signature modules, collectively called KEGG signatures. The signatures are checked against KEGG organisms with known antimicrobial resistance, as well as with other collections of antimicrobial resistance genes.

Gene variants and gene sets
Antimicrobial resistance genes
beta-Lactamases with standardized nomenclature and phylogenetic trees
Aminoglycoside resistance genes
Tetracyclin resistance genes
Macrolide resistance genes
Other resistance genes
KEGG signatures
KEGG signatures: signature KOs and signature modules
KEGG organisms with known antimicrobial resistance

Pathogen Checker

Pathogen Checker is a new tool for checking if any antimicrobial resistance genes or gene sets are present in the pathogen genome, as well as presenting affected drugs or drug groups. It is a specialized version of the BlastKOALA annotation server and searches against the amino acid sequences of Antimicrobial resistance genes being accumulated as described above.

Upload query amino acid sequences in FASTA format

Enter FASTA sequences:

Or upload file:


Database to be searched: Antimicrobial resistance genes beta-lactamases only



Last updated: January 18, 2017
KEGG GenomeNet Kanehisa Laboratories