Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Human diseases [BR:
Cancers of eye, brain, and central nervous system
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:
Neoplasms of brain or central nervous system
2A00 Primary neoplasms of brain
Cancer-accociated carbohydrates [
MicroRNAs in cancer
Amplified EGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
PDGF-overexpression to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
Amplified PDGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
Amplified EGFR to PLCG-CAMK signaling pathway
Amplified PDGFR to PLCG-CAMK signaling pathway
Amplified EGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
Amplified PDGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
EGFR-overexpression to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
EGFR-overexpression to PI3K signaling pathway
Deleted PTEN to PI3K signaling pathway
Mutation-inactivated PTEN to PI3K signaling pathway
Deleted p14(ARF) to p21-cell cycle G1/S
Amplified MDM2 to p21-cell cycle G1/S
Deleted p16(INK4a) to p16-cell cycle G1/S
Amplified CDK4 to cell cycle G1/S
Loss of RB1 to cell cycle G1/S
Mutation-inactivated TP53 to transcription
Mutation-activated EGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
Mutation-activated EGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
EGFR (amplification, mutation, overexpression) [HSA:
MDM2 (amplification, overexpression) [HSA:
PTEN (mutation) [HSA:
p16/INK4A (deletion) [HSA:
PDGF-A (overexpression) [HSA:
PDGF-B (overexpression) [HSA:
PDGFR-alpha (overexpression, amplification) [HSA:
PDGFR-beta (overexpression, amplification) [HSA:
CDK4 (amplification) [HSA:
p53 (mutation) [HSA:
RB1 (loss) [HSA:
X- and gamma-radiation
Aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride [DR:
ICD-O: 9401/3, Tumor type: Anaplastic astrocytoma
ICD-O: 9440/3, Tumor type: Glioblastoma
(gene, tumor type)
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