KEGG   DISEASE: Multiple sclerosisHelp
Entry
H01490                      Disease                                

Name
Multiple sclerosis
Description
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. This disease typically strikes young adults, especially women. There are four types of MS according to their relapsing or progressive pattern that include relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive (SPMS), primary progressive (PPMS), and progressive relapsing (PRMS). In most patients, the disease has a relapsing-remitting course during the first years. Within 10 years, approximately 50% of patients progress to SPMS. The aetiology of MS is not well understood, but it is likely multifactorial, combining both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the literature on the risk factors for MS has grown substantially. They indicate that a combination of a genetic predisposition, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels is involved. Authorized first-line treatments are considered equally effective, and include interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. They are primarily directed against inflammation, and might fail to adequately control disease activity in some patients. In that case, it has been recommended to switch these patients early to a therapy of higher efficacy. Currently, 13 different drugs with ten different active components are licensed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) for the treatment of MS.
Category
Nervous system disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Other nervous and sensory system diseases
   H01490  Multiple sclerosis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 08 Diseases of the nervous system
  Multiple sclerosis or other white matter disorders
   8A40  Multiple sclerosis
    H01490  Multiple sclerosis
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
PDCD1 [HSA:5133] [KO:K06744]
HLA-DRB1 [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
HLA-DQB1 [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
TNFRSF1A [HSA:7132] [KO:K03158]
Env factor
Epstein-Barr virus, cigarette smoking, and reduced sunlight exposure/vitamin D levels
Drug
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride [DR:D02166]
Interferon beta-1a [DR:D04554]
Interferon beta-1b [DR:D00746]
Glatiramer acetate [DR:D04318]
Natalizumab [DR:D06886]
Fingolimod hydrochloride [DR:D04187]
Teriflunomide [DR:D10172]
Alemtuzumab [DR:D02802]
Ocrelizumab [DR:D05218]
Daclizumab [DR:D03639]
Dimethyl fumarate [DR:D03846]
Dantrolene sodium [DR:D02274]
Dalfampridine [DR:D04127]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 8A40
ICD-10: G35
MeSH: D009103
OMIM: 126200 614810
Reference
  Authors
Milo R, Miller A
  Title
Revised diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis.
  Journal
Autoimmun Rev 13:518-24 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.012
Reference
  Authors
McKay KA, Kwan V, Duggan T, Tremlett H
  Title
Risk factors associated with the onset of relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.
  Journal
Biomed Res Int 2015:817238 (2015)
DOI:10.1155/2015/817238
Reference
  Authors
Goris A, Pauwels I, Dubois B
  Title
Progress in multiple sclerosis genetics.
  Journal
Curr Genomics 13:646-63 (2012)
DOI:10.2174/138920212803759695
Reference
PMID:16945427 (marker)
  Authors
Link H, Huang YM
  Title
Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid: an update on methodology and clinical usefulness.
  Journal
J Neuroimmunol 180:17-28 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.07.006
Reference
PMID:26810535 (drug)
  Authors
Rio J, Ruiz-Pena JL
  Title
Short-term suboptimal response criteria for predicting long-term non-response to first-line disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
  Journal
J Neurol Sci 361:158-67 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.12.043
Reference
PMID:25912246 (drug)
  Authors
Dorr J, Paul F
  Title
The transition from first-line to second-line therapy in multiple sclerosis.
  Journal
Curr Treat Options Neurol 17:354 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s11940-015-0354-5
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