KEGG   DISEASE: Major depressive disorderHelp
Entry
H01646                      Disease                                

Name
Major depressive disorder
Description
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, and a high risk of suicide. Accumulated evidence suggests that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of MDD although the pathogenesis of MDD remains unknown. Mutations in genes involved in brain serotonin synthesis, have been identified in patients. Brain serotonin deficiency has been hypothesized to play a role in a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including MDD. Several efficacious treatments for MDD are available, including different forms of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication. Recently, selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, SNRIs,) have become the first-line antidepressant drug treatment of depression and replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) due to fewer side-effects and ease of use.
Category
Mental and behavioural disorder
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01646  Major depressive disorder
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Mood disorders
   Depressive disorders
    6A70  Single episode depressive disorder
     H01646  Major depressive disorder
    6A71  Recurrent depressive disorder
     H01646  Major depressive disorder
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04726  Serotonergic synapse
Gene
TPH2 [HSA:121278] [KO:K00502]
HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
FKBP5 [HSA:2289] [KO:K09571]
Drug
Selegiline [DR:D03731]
Aripiprazole [DR:D01164]
Brexpiprazole [DR:D10309]
Imipramine hydrochloride [DR:D00815]
Amitriptyline hydrochloride [DR:D00809]
Amoxapine [DR:D00228]
Fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D00823]
Citalopram hydrobromide [DR:D00822]
Paroxetine hydrochloride hydrate [DR:D02260]
Paroxetine hydrochloride [DR:D05374]
Paroxetine mesylate [DR:D05375]
Sertraline hydrochloride [DR:D00825]
Escitalopram oxalate [DR:D02567]
Trazodone hydrochloride [DR:D00820]
Nefazodone hydrochloride [DR:D00819]
Bupropion hydrochloride [DR:D00817]
Bupropion hydrobromide [DR:D07938]
Venlafaxine hydrochloride [DR:D00821]
Duloxetine hydrochloride [DR:D01179]
Desvenlafaxine [DR:D07793]
Desvenlafaxine succinate [DR:D02570]
Vilazodone hydrochloride [DR:D09699]
Vortioxetine hydrobromide [DR:D10185]
Perphenazine - amitriptyline hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10294]
Olanzapine - fluoxetine hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10206]
Levomilnacipran hydrochloride [DR:D10133]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6A70 6A71
ICD-10: F32 F33
MeSH: D003863
OMIM: 608516
Reference
  Authors
Hou Z, Song X, Jiang W, Yue Y, Yin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Yuan Y
  Title
Prognostic value of imbalanced interhemispheric functional coordination in early therapeutic efficacy in major depressive disorder.
  Journal
Psychiatry Res 255:1-8 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.07.011
Reference
  Authors
Sachs BD, Rodriguiz RM, Tran HL, Iyer A, Wetsel WC, Caron MG
  Title
Serotonin deficiency alters susceptibility to the long-term consequences of adverse early life experience.
  Journal
Psychoneuroendocrinology 53:69-81 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.12.019
Reference
  Authors
Lin CX, Hu Z, Yan ZM, Li W, Chen YS, Zhao JH, Zhang LQ, Zhao B, Zhong WT, Feng D
  Title
Association between HTR2A T102C polymorphism and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis in the Chinese population.
  Journal
Int J Clin Exp Med 8:20897-903 (2015)
Reference
  Authors
Szczepankiewicz A, Leszczynska-Rodziewicz A, Pawlak J, Narozna B, Rajewska-Rager A, Wilkosc M, Zaremba D, Maciukiewicz M, Twarowska-Hauser J
  Title
FKBP5 polymorphism is associated with major depression but not with bipolar disorder.
  Journal
J Affect Disord 164:33-7 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.002
Reference
PMID:25159460 (drug)
  Authors
Zhang Y, Becker T, Ma Y, Koesters M
  Title
A systematic review of Chinese randomized clinical trials of SSRI treatment of depression.
  Journal
BMC Psychiatry 14:245 (2014)
DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0245-4
Reference
PMID:23737423 (drug)
  Authors
Cuijpers P, Sijbrandij M, Koole SL, Andersson G, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF 3rd
  Title
The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons.
  Journal
World Psychiatry 12:137-48 (2013)
DOI:10.1002/wps.20038
Reference
PMID:26572745 (drug)
  Authors
Bruno A, Morabito P, Spina E, Muscatello MR
  Title
The Role of Levomilnacipran in the Management of Major Depressive Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.
  Journal
Curr Neuropharmacol 14:191-9 (2016)
DOI:10.2174/1570159X14666151117122458
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