KEGG   DISEASE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Entry
H01450                      Disease                                

Name
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Description
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive and disturbing thoughts as well as by repetitive stereotypic behaviors. OCD is a complex disorder and its pathogenesis is most likely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although more than 140 candidate gene studies have been conducted, the findings have been inconclusive due to small sample size and few study replications. Many studies suggest that abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission is one of the most consistent biological findings in OCD. Studies have also reported dopaminergic abnormalities in the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens, as well as altered glutamate transmission. First line treatments for this disorder are cognitive behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In recent years, one of the promising novel treatment strategies developed to improve the efficacy of treatment for patients with OCD is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Recent studies have suggested that age of onset is an important factor in subtyping OCD. Early-onset OCD has been proposed to be associated with greater symptom severity, a higher prevalence of tic-related disorders, a more familial form of the condition, and a greater prevalence of psychiatry disorders in first-degree relatives as compared to late-onset OCD.
Category
Mental and behavioural disorder
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01450  Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Obsessive-compulsive or related disorders
   6B20  Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    H01450  Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Pathway
hsa04726  Serotonergic synapse
hsa04728  Dopaminergic synapse
hsa04724  Glutamatergic synapse
Gene
BDNF (polymorphism) [HSA:627] [KO:K04355]
HTR2A (promoter polymorphism) [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
SLC6A4 (polymorphism) [HSA:6532] [KO:K05037]
COMT (polymorphism) [HSA:1312] [KO:K00545]
MAOA (polymorphism) [HSA:4128] [KO:K00274]
SLC1A1 (polymorphism) [HSA:6505] [KO:K05612]
DRD4 (polymorphism) [HSA:1815] [KO:K04147]
Drug
Clomipramine hydrochloride [DR:D00811]
Fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D00823]
Paroxetine hydrochloride [DR:D05374]
Paroxetine mesylate [DR:D05375]
Sertraline hydrochloride [DR:D00825]
Fluvoxamine maleate [DR:D00824]
Comment
For Tourette syndrome, see H00862.
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6B20
ICD-10: F42
MeSH: D009771
OMIM: 164230
Reference
  Authors
Taylor S
  Title
Early versus late onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence for distinct subtypes.
  Journal
Clin Psychol Rev 31:1083-100 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.06.007
Reference
  Authors
Leckman JF, Bloch MH, King RA
  Title
Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective.
  Journal
Dialogues Clin Neurosci 11:21-33 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Tukel R, Gurvit H, Ozata B, Ozturk N, Ertekin BA, Ertekin E, Baran B, Kalem SA, Buyukgok D, Direskeneli GS
  Title
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 159B:850-8 (2012)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32092
Reference
  Authors
Walitza S, Wewetzer C, Warnke A, Gerlach M, Geller F, Gerber G, Gorg T, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Schulz E, Remschmidt H, Hebebrand J, Hinney A
  Title
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders.
  Journal
Mol Psychiatry 7:1054-7 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4001105
Reference
  Authors
Hu XZ, Lipsky RH, Zhu G, Akhtar LA, Taubman J, Greenberg BD, Xu K, Arnold PD, Richter MA, Kennedy JL, Murphy DL, Goldman D
  Title
Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 78:815-26 (2006)
DOI:10.1086/503850
Reference
  Authors
Sampaio AS, Hounie AG, Petribu K, Cappi C, Morais I, Vallada H, do Rosario MC, Stewart SE, Fargeness J, Mathews C, Arnold P, Hanna GL, Richter M, Kennedy J, Fontenelle L, de Braganca Pereira CA, Pauls DL, Miguel EC
  Title
COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a family-based association study.
  Journal
PLoS One 10:e0119592 (2015)
DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119592
Reference
  Authors
Dickel DE, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cox NJ, Wu X, Fischer DJ, Van Etten-Lee M, Himle JA, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr, Hanna GL
  Title
Association testing of the positional and functional candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAC1 in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  Journal
Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:778-85 (2006)
DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.63.7.778
Reference
  Authors
Millet B, Chabane N, Delorme R, Leboyer M, Leroy S, Poirier MF, Bourdel MC, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Rouillon F, Loo H, Krebs MO
  Title
Association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 116B:55-9 (2003)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.10034
Reference
PMID:26288647 (treatment)
  Authors
Vakili Y, Gharaee B, Habibi M
  Title
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Their Combination in the Improvement of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Experiential Avoidance in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
  Journal
Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 9:e845 (2015)
DOI:10.17795/ijpbs845
Reference
PMID:16585942 (treatment)
  Authors
Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Kelmendi B, Coric V, Bracken MB, Leckman JF
  Title
A systematic review: antipsychotic augmentation with treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  Journal
Mol Psychiatry 11:622-32 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4001823
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