KEGG   DISEASE: Diabetic retinopathyHelp
Entry
H01457                      Disease                                

Name
Diabetic retinopathy
Description
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most common vascular complication of diabetes, is the leading cause of visual deficits and blindness around the world. The development of DR is divided into two stages: in the early stages, also called as nonproliferative stage, it is asymptomatic because the signs are not visible to the eye. however, some defects including microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhaging, narrowing or blocked retinal blood vessels can be seen by detection; in the second stage, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, where neovascularization appears at the back of the eye and extend into the vitreous of the eye, and these new blood vessels are fragile. If they leak blood, the bleeding causes shrinkage of the retina, leading to retinal detachment, and ultimately to blindness. It has been reported that vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme, paraoxonase, erythropoietin are associated with DR development and progression.
Category
Endocrine and metabolic disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Endocrine and metabolic diseases
  Diabetes
   H01457  Diabetic retinopathy
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 09 Diseases of the visual system
  Disorders of the eyeball posterior segment
   Disorders of the retina
    9B71  Retinopathy
     H01457  Diabetic retinopathy
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04933  AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications
hsa04066  HIF-1 signaling pathway
hsa04614  Renin-angiotensin system
Gene
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (polymorphism) [HSA:7422] [KO:K05448]
Erythropoietin (polymophism) [HSA:2056] [KO:K05437]
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (polymorphism) [HSA:1636] [KO:K01283]
Paraoxonase (polymorphism) [HSA:5444] [KO:K01045]
Drug
Aflibercept [DR:D09574]
Ranibizumab [DR:D05697]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 9B71.0
ICD-10: E14.3
MeSH: D003930
OMIM: 603933 612623 612624 612633
Reference
  Authors
Hampton BM, Schwartz SG, Brantley MA Jr, Flynn HW Jr
  Title
Update on genetics and diabetic retinopathy.
  Journal
Clin Ophthalmol 9:2175-93 (2015)
DOI:10.2147/OPTH.S94508
Reference
  Authors
Watanabe D, Suzuma K, Matsui S, Kurimoto M, Kiryu J, Kita M, Suzuma I, Ohashi H, Ojima T, Murakami T, Kobayashi T, Masuda S, Nagao M, Yoshimura N, Takagi H
  Title
Erythropoietin as a retinal angiogenic factor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 353:782-92 (2005)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa041773
Reference
PMID:9661650
  Authors
Kao YL, Donaghue K, Chan A, Knight J, Silink M
  Title
A variant of paraoxonase (PON1) gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy in IDDM.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2589-92 (1998)
DOI:10.1210/jcem.83.7.5096
Reference
PMID:25949073 (description, drug)
  Authors
Dedania VS, Bakri SJ
  Title
Novel pharmacotherapies in diabetic retinopathy.
  Journal
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 22:164-73 (2015)
DOI:10.4103/0974-9233.154389
Reference
  Authors
Marozas LM, Fort PE
  Title
Diabetic Retinopathy-Update on Prevention Techniques, Present Therapies, and New Leads.
  Journal
US Ophthalmic Rev 7:54-58 (2014)
DOI:10.17925/USOR.2014.07.01.54
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