KEGG   DISEASE: HIV infectionHelp
Entry
H01563                      Disease                                

Name
HIV infection
Description
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two types of HIV has been characterized. HIV-1 is the most virulent and pathogenic strain. Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV-1. The relatively uncommon HIV-2 type is concentrated in West Africa and is rarely found elsewhere. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. The identification of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS catalyzed efforts to develop antiviral agents. The licenced anti-HIV drugs fall into some categories: reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs), integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), and coreceptor inhibitors. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as the standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection was seminal in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection and progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy dramatically suppresses HIV replication and reduces the plasma HIV-1 viral load, resulting in significant reconstitution of the immune system.
Category
Infectious disease
Brite
Infectious diseases [BR:br08401]
 Viral infections
  Infections caused by ssRNA-RT viruses
   H01563  HIV infection
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 01 Certain infectious or parasitic diseases
  Human immunodeficiency virus disease
   1C62  Human immunodeficiency virus disease without mention of tuberculosis or malaria
    H01563  HIV infection
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa05170  Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection
Network
nt06161  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
  Element
N00431  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNAI-PI3K-BAD signaling pathway
N00432  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNAQ-PLCB/G-calcineurin
N00434  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNB/G-RAC signaling pathway
N00436  HIV Tat to TLR2/4-NFKB signaling pathway
N00437  HIV Vpu to TLR2/4-NFKB signaling pathway
N00439  HIV Nef to TLR2/4-MAPK signaling pathway
N00440  HIV Vpu/Vif/Vpr to cGAS-STING signaling pathway
N00441  HIV gp120 to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00442  HIV Nef to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00443  HIV Vpr/Nef/Tat to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00445  HIV Tat/Nef to TNF-p38 signaling pathway
N00447  HIV Vpr/Tat to TNF-JNK signaling pathway
N00448  HIV Tat/Nef to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00449  HIV Tat/Nef to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00450  HIV Tat to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00451  HIV Tat to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00452  HIV Nef to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00453  HIV Vpr to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00454  HIV Vpr to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00456  HIV Vpr to CDC25-cell cycle G2M
N00457  HIV Vpr to cell cycle G2M
N00458  HIV Vpr to CDC25-cell cycle G2M
N00460  HIV Vpr to WEE1-cell cycle G2M
N00461  HIV Nef to antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I molecules
Pathogen
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) [GN:T40001]
Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) [GN:T40002]
Drug
Somatropin [DR:D02691]
Saquinavir mesylate [DR:D01160]
Indinavir sulfate [DR:D00897]
Ritonavir [DR:D00427]
Nelfinavir mesylate [DR:D00899]
Fosamprenavir calcium [DR:D03835]
Atazanavir sulfate [DR:D01276]
Tipranavir [DR:D08605]
Darunavir ethanolate [DR:D06478]
Zidovudine [DR:D00413]
Didanosine [DR:D00296]
Stavudine [DR:D00445]
Lamivudine [DR:D00353]
Abacavir sulfate [DR:D00891]
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DR:D01982]
Emtricitabine [DR:D01199]
Nevirapine [DR:D00435]
Delavirdine mesylate [DR:D00895]
Efavirenz [DR:D00896]
Etravirine [DR:D04112]
Rilpivirine hydrochloride [DR:D09958]
Doravirine [DR:D10624]
Zidovudine and lamivudine [DR:D07507]
Abacavir sulfate and lamivudine [DR:D08775]
Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D02297]
Abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine [DR:D10838]
Efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D10851]
Rilpivirine hydrochloride, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine [DR:D10571]
Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D10756]
Lopinavir and ritonavir [DR:D02498]
Efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [DR:D11392]
Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D11395]
Dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine [DR:D10600]
Darunavir and cobicistat [DR:D10832]
Atazanavir and cobicistat [DR:D10753]
Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10835]
Elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10755]
Emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D10836]
Bictegravir, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D11039]
Dolutegravir sodium and rilpivirine hydrochloride [DR:D11282]
Darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide [DR:D11382]
Doravirine, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil [DR:D11396]
Dolutegravir and lamivudine [DR:D11522]
Enfuvirtide [DR:D02499]
Raltegravir potassium [DR:D07133]
Maraviroc [DR:D06670] (CCR5-tropic)
Elvitegravir [DR:D06677]
Dolutegravir sodium [DR:D10113]
Ibalizumab [DR:D09575]
Cobicistat [DR:D09881]
Lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine [DR:D11521]
Comment
See also H00406 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Other DBs
ICD-11: 1C62
ICD-10: B24
MeSH: D015658
Reference
  Authors
Yousaf MZ, Zia S, Babar ME, Ashfaq UA
  Title
The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan.
  Journal
Virol J 8:401 (2011)
DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-8-401
Reference
PMID:18928385 (drug)
  Authors
Hazuda D, Iwamoto M, Wenning L
  Title
Emerging pharmacology: inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integration.
  Journal
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 49:377-94 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.011008.145553
Reference
PMID:15934866 (drug)
  Authors
De Clercq E
  Title
Emerging anti-HIV drugs.
  Journal
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 10:241-73 (2005)
DOI:10.1517/14728214.10.2.241
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