KEGG   DISEASE: Dry eye deseaseHelp
Entry
H01641                      Disease                                

Name
Dry eye desease;
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Description
Dry eye disease (also called keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is multifactorial disease of the tears, lids, and ocular surface which can result in symptoms of discomfort and/or visual disturbance and/or tear film instability with the potential for damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and subacute inflammation of the ocular surface. Dry eye disease is subdivided into two forms, aqueous insufficiency (tear deficiency) and hyperevaporative (increased evaporation). However, mixed forms are common. Aqueous insufficiency is divided into two main groups: Sjogren's syndrome-related dry eye and non-Sjogren's syndrome-related dry eye (which includes the use of systemic medication). Dry eye in Sjogren's syndrome (an autoimmune disease) [DS:H01502] is often severe and requires more aggressive treatment. Evapourative dry eye is most commonly a result of meibomian gland dysfunction. Tests used to diagnose dry eye disease and to assess efficacy of treatments in clinical trials include the following: measurement of tear film break-up time (the interval between the individual's last complete blink and the break up of the tear film) using fluorescein (shortened in dry eye disease), evaluation of tear quantity with Schirmer's test (using a strip of filter paper placed under the lower eyelid), assessment of corneal and conjunctival epithelium integrity using stains and dyes, and evaluation of meibomian glands. Artificial tears of various kinds are recommended if the symptoms are mild. Lid hygiene is helpful in the treatment of hyperevaporative dry eye, while collagen or silicon plugs can be used for partial occlusion of the efferent lacrimal ducts to treat severe hyposecretory dry eye. The benefit of long-term topical anti-inflammatory treatment of moderate or severe dry eye disease with corticosteroids or cyclosporine A eye drops has been documented in clinical trials on a high evidence level. Orally administered tetraycycline derivatives and omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are also used.
Category
Nervous system disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Eye disease
   H01641  Dry eye desease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 09 Diseases of the visual system
  Disorders of the eyeball anterior segment
   Disorders of the cornea
    9A79  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
     H01641  Dry eye desease
BRITE hierarchy
Drug
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Lifitegrast [DR:D10374]
Hydroxypropyl cellulose [DR:D04478]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 9A79
ICD-10: H04.1
MeSH: D015352
Reference
PMID:25686388 (description, drug)
  Authors
Messmer EM
  Title
The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of dry eye disease.
  Journal
Dtsch Arztebl Int 112:71-81; quiz 82 (2015)
DOI:10.3238/arztebl.2015.0071
Reference
  Title
The management of dry eye.
  Journal
BMJ 353:i2333 (2016)
DOI:10.1136/bmj.i2333
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