KEGG   DISEASE: Ankylosing spondylitis
Entry
H01674                      Disease                                

Name
Ankylosing spondylitis;
Bechterew disease
Description
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), formerly also known as Bechterew's disease, is a rheumatic disease of the axial skeleton that mainly affects the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis. AS is one of a group of inflammatory diseases, called spondyloarthritides, which share features. This disease is characterized by erosion, sclerosis, and ossification, which may result in complete fusion and rigidity of the spine. Regarding extra-articular manifestations, the most frequent is anterior uveitis. The major functional losses occur during the first 10 years of disease. It usually begins in the second or third decade of life, preferentially in HLA-B27-positive Caucasian males. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood, but the most prevalent hypothesis involves immune mediation as its major mechanism, including several cytokines. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been identified that influence the risk of developing AS, including HLA alleles such as HLA-B27. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to reduce pain and inflammation. Additional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are prescribed to slowdown disease progression. The most frequently applied biological agents approved for AS are TNF alpha inhibitors. The IL-17 inhibitor secukinumab has been recently approved for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and AS.
Category
Immune system disease; Musculoskeletal disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Immune system diseases
  Allergies and autoimmune diseases
   H01674  Ankylosing spondylitis
 Musculoskeletal diseases
  Skeletal diseases
   H01674  Ankylosing spondylitis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 15 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system or connective tissue
  Conditions associated with the spine
   Inflammation of spine
    FA92  Inflammatory spondyloarthritis
     H01674  Ankylosing spondylitis
Pathway
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
Gene
HLA-B [HSA:3106] [KO:K06751]
Drug
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate [DR:D00975]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone [DR:D00472]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Indomethacin [DR:D00141]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Naproxen [DR:D00118]
Naproxen sodium [DR:D00970]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
Celecoxib [DR:D00567]
Etanercept [DR:D00742]
Infliximab [DR:D02598]
Adalimumab [DR:D02597]
Certolizumab pegol [DR:D03441]
Golimumab [DR:D04358]
Secukinumab [DR:D09967]
Naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium [DR:D11576]
Meclofenamate sodium [DR:D00169]
Comment
See also H00630 Rheumatoid arthritis and H01656 Psoriasis.
Other DBs
ICD-11: FA92
ICD-10: M45
MeSH: D013167
OMIM: 106300
Reference
  Authors
Gouveia EB, Elmann D, Morales MS
  Title
Ankylosing spondylitis and uveitis: overview.
  Journal
Rev Bras Reumatol 52:742-56 (2012)
DOI:10.1590/S0482-50042012000500009
Reference
PMID:27445458 (drug)
  Authors
Koenders MI, van den Berg WB
  Title
Secukinumab for rheumatology: development and its potential place in therapy.
  Journal
Drug Des Devel Ther 10:2069-80 (2016)
DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S105263
Reference
  Authors
Brown MA, Kenna T, Wordsworth BP
  Title
Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis--insights into pathogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Rheumatol 12:81-91 (2016)
DOI:10.1038/nrrheum.2015.133
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