KEGG   DISEASE: Eating DisordersHelp
Entry
H01703                      Disease                                

Name
Eating Disorders
  Subgroup
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Binge eating disorder
Description
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), are disorders defined by disturbances in eating behavior. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is the oldest recognized eating disorder. The salient features of this eating disorder are a relentless pursuit of thinness, accompanied by a fear of becoming fat despite being markedly underweight. In women, anorexia nervosa is associated with global endocrine dysregulation, including hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction and alterations in adipokine and appetite regulating hormone levels. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is defined by eating behaviors that include episodes of binge eating which are followed by recurrent self-induced vomiting performed in an attempt to avoid weight gain from the caloric overload. Binge eating disorder (BED) is currently characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating occurring at least twice a week for 6 months or longer. In contrast to bulimia nervosa, there are no inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as vomiting. Eating disorders frequently develop during adolescence or early adulthood, but some studies have reported their onset during childhood or later in adulthood. There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in regulating nerves in the brain. Recent studies have provided evidence that BDNF also plays a role in regulating eating behaviors. In addition, an association between the BDNF gene polymorphism and eating disorders has been demonstrated. Other genetic risk factors for eating disorders has also been reported.
Category
Mental and behavioural disorder
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01703  Eating Disorders
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Feeding or eating disorders
   6B8Y  Other specified feeding or eating disorders
    H01703  Eating Disorders
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04920  Adipocytokine signaling pathway
hsa04024  cAMP signaling pathway
Gene
BDNF (polymorphism) [HSA:627] [KO:K04355]
AGRP (polymorphism) [HSA:181] [KO:K05231]
GHRL (polymorphism) [HSA:51738] [KO:K05254]
OPRD1 (polymorphism) [HSA:4985] [KO:K04213]
HTR1D (polymorphism) [HSA:3352] [KO:K04153]
Drug
Fluoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D00823]
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate [DR:D04747]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6B8Y
ICD-10: F50
MeSH: D001068
OMIM: 606788 610269
Reference
  Authors
Heaner MK, Walsh BT
  Title
A history of the identification of the characteristic eating disturbances of Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa.
  Journal
Appetite 65:185-8 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.01.005
Reference
PMID:27811940 (marker)
  Authors
Schorr M, Miller KK
  Title
The endocrine manifestations of anorexia nervosa: mechanisms and management.
  Journal
Nat Rev Endocrinol 13:174-186 (2017)
DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2016.175
Reference
  Authors
Ribases M, Gratacos M, Armengol L, de Cid R, Badia A, Jimenez L, Solano R, Vallejo J, Fernandez F, Estivill X
  Title
Met66 in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) precursor is associated with anorexia nervosa restrictive type.
  Journal
Mol Psychiatry 8:745-51 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4001281
Reference
  Authors
Atalayer D, Gibson C, Konopacka A, Geliebter A
  Title
Ghrelin and eating disorders.
  Journal
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 40:70-82 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.08.011
Reference
  Authors
Yilmaz Z, Kaplan AS, Tiwari AK, Levitan RD, Piran S, Bergen AW, Kaye WH, Hakonarson H, Wang K, Berrettini WH, Brandt HA, Bulik CM, Crawford S, Crow S, Fichter MM, Halmi KA, Johnson CL, Keel PK, Klump KL, Magistretti P, Mitchell JE, Strober M, Thornton LM, Treasure J, Woodside DB, Knight J, Kennedy JL
  Title
The role of leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin system genes on body weight in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
  Journal
J Psychiatr Res 55:77-86 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.04.005
Reference
  Authors
Koronyo-Hamaoui M, Gak E, Stein D, Frisch A, Danziger Y, Leor S, Michaelovsky E, Laufer N, Carel C, Fennig S, Mimouni M, Apter A, Goldman B, Barkai G, Weizman A
  Title
CAG repeat polymorphism within the KCNN3 gene is a significant contributor to susceptibility to anorexia nervosa: a case-control study of female patients and several ethnic groups in the Israeli Jewish population.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 131B:76-80 (2004)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.20154
Reference
  Authors
Bergen AW, van den Bree MB, Yeager M, Welch R, Ganjei JK, Haque K, Bacanu S, Berrettini WH, Grice DE, Goldman D, Bulik CM, Klump K, Fichter M, Halmi K, Kaplan A, Strober M, Treasure J, Woodside B, Kaye WH
  Title
Candidate genes for anorexia nervosa in the 1p33-36 linkage region: serotonin 1D and delta opioid receptor loci exhibit significant association to anorexia nervosa.
  Journal
Mol Psychiatry 8:397-406 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4001318
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