KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa03320Help
Entry
hsa03320                    Pathway                                

Name
PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa03320  PPAR signaling pathway
hsa03320

Ortholog table
Disease
H00151  Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
H00154  Hyperlipoproteinemia, type I
H00157  Hyperlipoproteinemia, type V
H00407  Peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme deficiency
H00409  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
H00420  Familial partial lipodystrophy
H00874  Leukoencephalopathy with dystonia and motor neuropathy
H00930  Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
H00967  Adiponectin deficiency
H01108  CD36 deficiency
H01199  Hyperalphalipoproteinemia
H02013  Glycerol kinase deficiency
H02096  Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
H02106  Genetic obesity
Drug
D00279  Clofibrate (JP17/USP/INN)
D00334  Gemfibrozil (JAN/USP/INN)
D00395  Troglitazone (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00565  Fenofibrate (JAN/USP/INN)
D00596  Rosiglitazone maleate (JAN/USAN)
D00945  Pioglitazone hydrochloride (JP17/USP)
D01208  Aluminum clofibrate (JAN/INN)
D01274  Tesaglitazar (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01366  Bezafibrate (JP17/USAN/INN)
D01971  Reglitazar (JAN/INN)
D02047  Dextran sulfate sodium (JAN)
D02815  Alitretinoin (USAN)
D03106  Bexarotene (JAN/USAN/INN)
D03343  Dextran sulfate sodium sulfur 5 (JP17)
D03493  Ciglitazone (USAN/INN)
D03521  Ciprofibrate (USAN/INN)
D03747  Ibrolipim (USAN/INN)
D03941  Edaglitazone sodium (USAN)
D03996  Englitazone sodium (USAN)
D04132  Farglitazar (USAN/INN)
D04268  Elastase ES
D04411  Halofenate (USAN/INN)
D05030  Mifobate (USAN/INN)
D05091  Muraglitazar (USAN/INN)
D05150  Netoglitazone (USAN/INN)
D05255  Omega-3-acid ethyl esters (USAN)
D05397  Peliglitazar (USAN)
D05739  Rivoglitazone (USAN/INN)
D06102  Theofibrate (USAN)
D06647  Sodelglitazar (USAN)
D07187  Etofibrate (INN)
D07724  Magnesium clofibrate (INN)
D08378  Pioglitazone (INN)
D08491  Rosiglitazone (INN)
D08845  Aleglitazar (USAN)
D08890  Choline fenofibrate (USAN/INN)
D08949  Naveglitazar (USAN/INN)
D09350  Indeglitazar (USAN)
D09579  Arhalofenate (USAN/INN)
D11208  Elafibranor (USAN)
D11256  Seladelpar (USAN/INN)
D11257  Seladelpar lysine (USAN)
D11579  Fenofibric acid
D11604  Leriglitazone hydrochloride (USAN)
D11648  Volanesorsen (USAN/INN)
D11650  Volanesorsen sodium (USAN)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
948  CD36; CD36 molecule [KO:K06259]
376497  SLC27A1; solute carrier family 27 member 1 [KO:K08745] [EC:6.2.1.-]
10999  SLC27A4; solute carrier family 27 member 4 [KO:K08745] [EC:6.2.1.-]
11001  SLC27A2; solute carrier family 27 member 2 [KO:K08746] [EC:6.2.1.- 6.2.1.3]
10998  SLC27A5; solute carrier family 27 member 5 [KO:K08748] [EC:6.2.1.7]
28965  SLC27A6; solute carrier family 27 member 6 [KO:K08749]
2168  FABP1; fatty acid binding protein 1 [KO:K08750]
2169  FABP2; fatty acid binding protein 2 [KO:K08751]
2170  FABP3; fatty acid binding protein 3 [KO:K08752]
2167  FABP4; fatty acid binding protein 4 [KO:K08753]
2171  FABP5; fatty acid binding protein 5 [KO:K08754]
2172  FABP6; fatty acid binding protein 6 [KO:K08755]
2173  FABP7; fatty acid binding protein 7 [KO:K08756]
5465  PPARA; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha [KO:K07294]
6256  RXRA; retinoid X receptor alpha [KO:K08524]
6257  RXRB; retinoid X receptor beta [KO:K08525]
6258  RXRG; retinoid X receptor gamma [KO:K08526]
5467  PPARD; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta [KO:K04504]
5468  PPARG; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma [KO:K08530]
3157  HMGCS1; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 [KO:K01641] [EC:2.3.3.10]
3158  HMGCS2; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 [KO:K01641] [EC:2.3.3.10]
335  APOA1; apolipoprotein A1 [KO:K08757]
336  APOA2; apolipoprotein A2 [KO:K08758]
345  APOC3; apolipoprotein C3 [KO:K08759]
116519  APOA5; apolipoprotein A5 [KO:K09025]
5360  PLTP; phospholipid transfer protein [KO:K08761]
10873  ME3; malic enzyme 3 [KO:K00029] [EC:1.1.1.40]
4199  ME1; malic enzyme 1 [KO:K00029] [EC:1.1.1.40]
9415  FADS2; fatty acid desaturase 2 [KO:K10226] [EC:1.14.19.3]
6319  SCD; stearoyl-CoA desaturase [KO:K00507] [EC:1.14.19.1]
79966  SCD5; stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 [KO:K00507] [EC:1.14.19.1]
1581  CYP7A1; cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 [KO:K00489] [EC:1.14.14.23]
1582  CYP8B1; cytochrome P450 family 8 subfamily B member 1 [KO:K07431] [EC:1.14.18.8 1.14.14.139]
10062  NR1H3; nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3 [KO:K08536]
1593  CYP27A1; cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily A member 1 [KO:K00488] [EC:1.14.15.15]
1622  DBI; diazepam binding inhibitor, acyl-CoA binding protein [KO:K08762]
4023  LPL; lipoprotein lipase [KO:K01059] [EC:3.1.1.34]
23305  ACSL6; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 6 [KO:K01897] [EC:6.2.1.3]
2182  ACSL4; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4 [KO:K01897] [EC:6.2.1.3]
2180  ACSL1; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 1 [KO:K01897] [EC:6.2.1.3]
51703  ACSL5; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 5 [KO:K01897] [EC:6.2.1.3]
2181  ACSL3; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 3 [KO:K01897] [EC:6.2.1.3]
23205  ACSBG1; acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 1 [KO:K15013] [EC:6.2.1.3]
81616  ACSBG2; acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 2 [KO:K15013] [EC:6.2.1.3]
4973  OLR1; oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 [KO:K08763]
1962  EHHADH; enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase [KO:K07514] [EC:4.2.1.17 1.1.1.35 5.3.3.8]
1579  CYP4A11; cytochrome P450 family 4 subfamily A member 11 [KO:K07425] [EC:1.14.14.80]
284541  CYP4A22; cytochrome P450 family 4 subfamily A member 22 [KO:K07425] [EC:1.14.14.80]
30  ACAA1; acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 [KO:K07513] [EC:2.3.1.16]
6342  SCP2; sterol carrier protein 2 [KO:K08764] [EC:2.3.1.176]
8310  ACOX3; acyl-CoA oxidase 3, pristanoyl [KO:K00232] [EC:1.3.3.6]
51  ACOX1; acyl-CoA oxidase 1 [KO:K00232] [EC:1.3.3.6]
8309  ACOX2; acyl-CoA oxidase 2 [KO:K10214] [EC:1.17.99.3]
1374  CPT1A; carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A [KO:K08765] [EC:2.3.1.21]
1375  CPT1B; carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B [KO:K19523] [EC:2.3.1.21]
126129  CPT1C; carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C [KO:K19524] [EC:2.3.1.21]
1376  CPT2; carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 [KO:K08766] [EC:2.3.1.21]
33  ACADL; acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain [KO:K00255] [EC:1.3.8.8]
34  ACADM; acyl-CoA dehydrogenase medium chain [KO:K00249] [EC:1.3.8.7]
51129  ANGPTL4; angiopoietin like 4 [KO:K08767]
10580  SORBS1; sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1 [KO:K06086]
5346  PLIN1; perilipin 1 [KO:K08768]
123  PLIN2; perilipin 2 [KO:K17284]
729359  PLIN4; perilipin 4 [KO:K20254]
440503  PLIN5; perilipin 5 [KO:K20255]
9370  ADIPOQ; adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing [KO:K07296]
4312  MMP1; matrix metallopeptidase 1 [KO:K01388] [EC:3.4.24.7]
7350  UCP1; uncoupling protein 1 [KO:K08769]
3611  ILK; integrin linked kinase [KO:K06272] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5170  PDPK1; 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 [KO:K06276] [EC:2.7.11.1]
7316  UBC; ubiquitin C [KO:K08770]
5105  PCK1; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 [KO:K01596] [EC:4.1.1.32]
5106  PCK2; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial [KO:K01596] [EC:4.1.1.32]
2712  GK2; glycerol kinase 2 [KO:K00864] [EC:2.7.1.30]
2710  GK; glycerol kinase [KO:K00864] [EC:2.7.1.30]
364  AQP7; aquaporin 7 [KO:K08771]
Compound
C02165  Leukotriene B4
C14762  13(S)-HODE
C14767  9(S)-HODE
C14776  8(S)-HETE
C15493  9-cis-Retinoic acid
Reference
  Authors
Takahashi N, Goto T, Kusudo T, Moriyama T, Kawada T.
  Title
[The structures and functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)]
  Journal
Nippon Rinsho 63:557-64 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Fujii H.
  Title
[PPARs-mediated intracellular signal transduction]
  Journal
Nippon Rinsho 63:565-71 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Takada I, Kato S.
  Title
[PPARs target genes]
  Journal
Nippon Rinsho 63:573-7 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Inoue H.
  Title
[Endogenous ligands for PPARs]
  Journal
Nippon Rinsho 63:578-83 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Feige JN, Gelman L, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W.
  Title
From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions.
  Journal
Prog Lipid Res 45:120-59 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.plipres.2005.12.002
Reference
  Authors
Desvergne B, Michalik L, Wahli W.
  Title
Transcriptional regulation of metabolism.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 86:465-514 (2006)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.00025.2005
Reference
  Authors
Mandard S, Muller M, Kersten S.
  Title
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 61:393-416 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-003-3216-3
Reference
  Authors
Desvergne B, Wahli W.
  Title
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 20:649-88 (1999)
DOI:10.1210/edrv.20.5.0380
Reference
  Authors
Savage DB.
  Title
PPARgamma as a metabolic regulator: insights from genomics and pharmacology.
  Journal
Expert Rev Mol Med 2005:1-16 (2005)
DOI:10.1017/S1462399405008793
Reference
  Authors
Semple RK, Chatterjee VK, O'Rahilly S.
  Title
PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 116:581-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1172/JCI28003
Reference
  Authors
Lehrke M, Lazar MA.
  Title
The many faces of PPARgamma.
  Journal
Cell 123:993-9 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2005.11.026
Reference
  Authors
Hauner H.
  Title
The mode of action of thiazolidinediones.
  Journal
Diabetes Metab Res Rev 18 Suppl 2:S10-5 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/dmrr.249
Related
pathway
hsa00071  Fatty acid degradation
hsa00072  Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
hsa00120  Primary bile acid biosynthesis
hsa00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
hsa04920  Adipocytokine signaling pathway
KO pathway
ko03320   
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