KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00260
Entry
ko00260                     Pathway                                

Name
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Description
Serine is derived from 3-phospho-D-glycerate, an intermediate of glycolysis [MD:M00020], and glycine is derived from serine. Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, threonine is derived from aspartate [MD:M00018].
Class
Metabolism; Amino acid metabolism
Pathway map
ko00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ko00260

Module
M00018  Threonine biosynthesis, aspartate => homoserine => threonine [PATH:ko00260]
M00020  Serine biosynthesis, glycerate-3P => serine [PATH:ko00260]
M00033  Ectoine biosynthesis, aspartate => ectoine [PATH:ko00260]
M00338  Cysteine biosynthesis, homocysteine + serine => cysteine [PATH:ko00260]
M00555  Betaine biosynthesis, choline => betaine [PATH:ko00260]
M00919  Ectoine degradation, ectoine => aspartate [PATH:ko00260]
Disease
H00117  Primary hyperoxaluria
H00182  Cystathioninuria
H00183  Homocystinuria
H00184  Hypermethioninemia
H00191  Nonketotic hyperglycinemia
H00834  Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency
H00849  Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome
H01003  Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency
H01079  3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency
H01082  Phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency
H01951  Glycogen storage disease type X
H02116  Phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency
H02117  Neu-Laxova syndrome
H02380  D-glyceric aciduria
Other DBs
GO: 0006544 0006563 0070178 0006566
Orthology
K00928  aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4]
K12524  bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 1 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3]
K12525  bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 2 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3]
K12526  bifunctional diaminopimelate decarboxylase / aspartate kinase [EC:4.1.1.20 2.7.2.4]
K00133  aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.11]
K00003  homoserine dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.3]
K00872  homoserine kinase [EC:2.7.1.39]
K02204  homoserine kinase type II [EC:2.7.1.39]
K02203  phosphoserine / homoserine phosphotransferase [EC:3.1.3.3 2.7.1.39]
K01733  threonine synthase [EC:4.2.3.1]
K01620  threonine aldolase [EC:4.1.2.48]
K00600  glycine hydroxymethyltransferase [EC:2.1.2.1]
K00830  alanine-glyoxylate transaminase / serine-glyoxylate transaminase / serine-pyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.44 2.6.1.45 2.6.1.51]
K00018  glycerate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.29]
K15893  glycerate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.29]
K15919  glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase [EC:1.1.1.79 1.1.1.81]
K00049  glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase [EC:1.1.1.79 1.1.1.81]
K12972  glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase [EC:1.1.1.79 1.1.1.81]
K00090  glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate/2-ketogluconate reductase [EC:1.1.1.79 1.1.1.81 1.1.1.215]
K00050  hydroxypyruvate reductase [EC:1.1.1.81]
K22982  hydroxypyruvate reductase [EC:1.1.1.81]
K00865  glycerate 2-kinase [EC:2.7.1.165]
K11529  glycerate 2-kinase [EC:2.7.1.165]
K01834  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K15634  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K01837  bisphosphoglycerate/phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.4 5.4.2.11]
K15633  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15635  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15918  D-glycerate 3-kinase [EC:2.7.1.31]
K00058  D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase / 2-oxoglutarate reductase [EC:1.1.1.95 1.1.1.399]
K00831  phosphoserine aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.52]
K01079  phosphoserine phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.3]
K22305  phosphoserine phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.3]
K13290  serine---pyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.51]
K20801  L-allo-threonine aldolase [EC:4.1.2.49]
K16066  3-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase / malonic semialdehyde reductase [EC:1.1.1.381 1.1.1.-]
K00639  glycine C-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.29]
K00060  threonine 3-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.103]
K15789  threonine 3-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.103]
K00643  5-aminolevulinate synthase [EC:2.3.1.37]
K00274  monoamine oxidase [EC:1.4.3.4]
K00276  primary-amine oxidase [EC:1.4.3.21]
K00281  glycine dehydrogenase [EC:1.4.4.2]
K00282  glycine dehydrogenase subunit 1 [EC:1.4.4.2]
K00283  glycine dehydrogenase subunit 2 [EC:1.4.4.2]
K00605  aminomethyltransferase [EC:2.1.2.10]
K00382  dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [EC:1.8.1.4]
K02437  glycine cleavage system H protein
K00273  D-amino-acid oxidase [EC:1.4.3.3]
K00827  alanine-glyoxylate transaminase / (R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate-pyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.44 2.6.1.40]
K14272  glutamate--glyoxylate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.4 2.6.1.2 2.6.1.44]
K00613  glycine amidinotransferase [EC:2.1.4.1]
K00542  guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.2]
K08688  creatinase [EC:3.5.3.3]
K00998  CDP-diacylglycerol---serine O-phosphatidyltransferase [EC:2.7.8.8]
K17103  CDP-diacylglycerol---serine O-phosphatidyltransferase [EC:2.7.8.8]
K00499  choline monooxygenase [EC:1.14.15.7]
K00108  choline dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.99.1]
K11440  choline dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K17755  choline oxidase [EC:1.1.3.17]
K00130  betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.8]
K14085  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.31 1.2.1.8 1.2.1.3]
K00544  betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.5]
K00309  dimethylglycine oxidase [EC:1.5.3.10]
K00315  dimethylglycine dehydrogenase [EC:1.5.8.4]
K00301  sarcosine oxidase [EC:1.5.3.1]
K00302  sarcosine oxidase, subunit alpha [EC:1.5.3.1]
K00303  sarcosine oxidase, subunit beta [EC:1.5.3.1]
K00305  sarcosine oxidase, subunit gamma [EC:1.5.3.1]
K00304  sarcosine oxidase, subunit delta [EC:1.5.3.1]
K00306  sarcosine oxidase / L-pipecolate oxidase [EC:1.5.3.1 1.5.3.7]
K00314  sarcosine dehydrogenase [EC:1.5.8.3]
K00552  glycine N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.20]
K18896  glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.156]
K18897  sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.157]
K24071  glycine/sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.156 2.1.1.157]
K13042  dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.161]
K01697  cystathionine beta-synthase [EC:4.2.1.22]
K10150  cysteine synthase / O-phosphoserine sulfhydrylase / cystathionine beta-synthase [EC:2.5.1.47 2.5.1.65 4.2.1.22]
K01758  cystathionine gamma-lyase [EC:4.4.1.1]
K17217  cystathionine gamma-lyase / homocysteine desulfhydrase [EC:4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2]
K01752  L-serine dehydratase [EC:4.3.1.17]
K01754  threonine dehydratase [EC:4.3.1.19]
K17989  L-serine/L-threonine ammonia-lyase [EC:4.3.1.17 4.3.1.19]
K20498  D-serine ammonia-lyase [EC:4.3.1.18]
K01753  D-serine dehydratase [EC:4.3.1.18]
K12235  serine racemase [EC:5.1.1.18]
K01694  tryptophan synthase [EC:4.2.1.20]
K01695  tryptophan synthase alpha chain [EC:4.2.1.20]
K01696  tryptophan synthase beta chain [EC:4.2.1.20]
K06001  tryptophan synthase beta chain [EC:4.2.1.20]
K00836  diaminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.76]
K06718  L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.178]
K06720  L-ectoine synthase [EC:4.2.1.108]
K10674  ectoine hydroxylase [EC:1.14.11.55]
K13745  L-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.86]
K15783  ectoine hydrolase [EC:3.5.4.44]
K15784  N2-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutanoate deacetylase [EC:3.5.1.125]
K15785  L-2,4-diaminobutyrate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.76]
K15786  aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.-]
Compound
C00011  CO2
C00014  Ammonia
C00022  Pyruvate
C00037  Glycine
C00048  Glyoxylate
C00049  L-Aspartate
C00065  L-Serine
C00078  L-Tryptophan
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00101  Tetrahydrofolate
C00109  2-Oxobutanoate
C00114  Choline
C00143  5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
C00168  Hydroxypyruvate
C00188  L-Threonine
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00213  Sarcosine
C00258  D-Glycerate
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00300  Creatine
C00430  5-Aminolevulinate
C00441  L-Aspartate 4-semialdehyde
C00546  Methylglyoxal
C00576  Betaine aldehyde
C00581  Guanidinoacetate
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00719  Betaine
C00740  D-Serine
C00986  1,3-Diaminopropane
C01005  O-Phospho-L-serine
C01026  N,N-Dimethylglycine
C01102  O-Phospho-L-homoserine
C01242  [Protein]-S8-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine
C01726  D-Lombricine
C01888  Aminoacetone
C02051  Lipoylprotein
C02291  L-Cystathionine
C02737  Phosphatidylserine
C02855  N-Phospho-D-lombricine
C02972  Dihydrolipoylprotein
C03082  4-Phospho-L-aspartate
C03194  (R)-1-Aminopropan-2-ol
C03232  3-Phosphonooxypyruvate
C03283  L-2,4-Diaminobutanoate
C03508  L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid
C05519  L-Allothreonine
C06231  Ectoine
C06442  N(gamma)-Acetyldiaminobutyrate
C16432  5-Hydroxyectoine
C19929  N(alpha)-Acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyrate
Reference
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Kuhlmann AU, Bremer E.
  Title
Osmotically regulated synthesis of the compatible solute ectoine in Bacillus pasteurii and related Bacillus spp.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 68:772-83 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.68.2.772-783.2002
Reference
  Authors
Canovas D, Borges N, Vargas C, Ventosa A, Nieto JJ, Santos H.
  Title
Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 65:3774-9 (1999)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.65.9.3774-3779.1999
Reference
  Authors
Bursy J, Pierik AJ, Pica N, Bremer E.
  Title
Osmotically induced synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved ectoine hydroxylase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:31147-55 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M704023200
Reference
  Authors
Garcia-Estepa R, Argandona M, Reina-Bueno M, Capote N, Iglesias-Guerra F, Nieto JJ, Vargas C.
  Title
The ectD gene, which is involved in the synthesis of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine, is essential for thermoprotection of the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:3774-84 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JB.00136-06
Reference
  Authors
Arevalo-Rodriguez M, Pan X, Boeke JD, Heitman J
  Title
FKBP12 controls aspartate pathway flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to prevent toxic intermediate accumulation.
  Journal
Eukaryot Cell 3:1287-96 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/EC.3.5.1287-1296.2004
Reference
PMID:7639721
  Authors
Rees WD, Hay SM
  Title
The biosynthesis of threonine by mammalian cells: expression of a complete bacterial biosynthetic pathway in an animal cell.
  Journal
Biochem J 309 ( Pt 3):999-1007 (1995)
DOI:10.1042/bj3090999
Reference
  Authors
Jacques SL, Nieman C, Bareich D, Broadhead G, Kinach R, Honek JF, Wright GD
  Title
Characterization of yeast homoserine dehydrogenase, an antifungal target: the invariant histidine 309 is important for enzyme integrity.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1544:28-41 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00203-X
Reference
  Authors
Chen X, Jhee KH, Kruger WD
  Title
Production of the neuromodulator H2S by cystathionine beta-synthase via the condensation of cysteine and homocysteine.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:52082-6 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.C400481200
Related
pathway
ko00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
ko00020  Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
ko00230  Purine metabolism
ko00250  Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
ko00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
ko00290  Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
ko00300  Lysine biosynthesis
ko00330  Arginine and proline metabolism
ko00460  Cyanoamino acid metabolism
ko00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
ko00600  Sphingolipid metabolism
ko00620  Pyruvate metabolism
ko00630  Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
ko00640  Propanoate metabolism
ko00680  Methane metabolism
ko00860  Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
ko00920  Sulfur metabolism
LinkDB

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