KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00550
Entry
ko00550                     Pathway                                

Name
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Description
Peptidoglycan is a macromolecule made of long aminosugar strands cross-linked by short peptides. It forms the cell wall in bacteria surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. The glycan strands are typically comprised of repeating N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) disaccharides. Each MurNAc is linked to a peptide of three to five amino acid residues. Disaccharide subunits are first assembled on the cytoplasmic side of the bacterial membrane on a polyisoprenoid anchor (lipid I and II). Polymerization of disaccharide subunits by transglycosylases and cross-linking of glycan strands by transpeptidases occur on the other side of the membrane. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors form a major class of antibiotics.
Class
Metabolism; Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism
Pathway map
ko00550  Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
ko00550

Drug
D00128  Bacitracin (JP17/USP/INN)
D00877  Cycloserine (JP17/USP/INN)
D00925  Fosfomycin tromethamine (USP)
D02187  Fosfomycin calcium hydrate (JP17)
D02188  Fosfomycin sodium (JP17)
D03047  Bacitracin methylenedisalicylate (USP)
D03048  Bacitracin zinc (USP)
D04253  Fosfomycin (USAN/INN)
D07995  Fosfomycin calcium
D08885  Ceftobiprole (USAN/INN)
D08886  Ceftobiprole medocaril (USAN)
D09022  Tomopenem (USAN/INN)
Orthology
K00790  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.7]
K00075  UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase [EC:1.3.1.98]
K01924  UDP-N-acetylmuramate--alanine ligase [EC:6.3.2.8]
K01925  UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase [EC:6.3.2.9]
K01928  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate--2,6-diaminopimelate ligase [EC:6.3.2.13]
K01921  D-alanine-D-alanine ligase [EC:6.3.2.4]
K01929  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide--D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase [EC:6.3.2.10]
K15792  MurE/MurF fusion protein [EC:6.3.2.13 6.3.2.10]
K01798  Alr-MurF fusion protein [EC:5.1.1.1 6.3.2.10]
K00887  undecaprenol kinase [EC:2.7.1.66]
K00806  undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.31]
K06153  undecaprenyl-diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.27]
K19302  undecaprenyl-diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.27]
K01000  phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide-transferase [EC:2.7.8.13]
K02563  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine--N-acetylmuramyl-(pentapeptide) pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferase [EC:2.4.1.227]
K03814  monofunctional glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.129]
K05366  penicillin-binding protein 1A [EC:2.4.1.129 3.4.16.4]
K05365  penicillin-binding protein 1B [EC:2.4.1.129 3.4.16.4]
K05367  penicillin-binding protein 1C [EC:2.4.1.129]
K12555  penicillin-binding protein 2A [EC:2.4.1.129 3.4.16.4]
K18770  penicillin-binding protein 4 [EC:2.4.1.129 3.4.16.4]
K21464  penicillin-binding protein 2D [EC:2.4.1.129 3.4.16.4]
K05515  penicillin-binding protein 2 [EC:3.4.16.4]
K03587  cell division protein FtsI (penicillin-binding protein 3) [EC:3.4.16.4]
K18149  penicillin-binding protein
K08724  penicillin-binding protein 2B
K08384  stage V sporulation protein D (sporulation-specific penicillin-binding protein)
K21465  penicillin-binding protein A
K21466  penicillin-binding protein H
K05364  penicillin-binding protein A
K07258  serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase (penicillin-binding protein 5/6) [EC:3.4.16.4]
K07259  serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase/endopeptidase (penicillin-binding protein 4) [EC:3.4.16.4 3.4.21.-]
K21469  serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase [EC:3.4.16.4]
K07260  zinc D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase [EC:3.4.17.14]
K18866  zinc D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase/carboxypeptidase [EC:3.4.13.22 3.4.17.14]
K05362  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate-L-lysine ligase [EC:6.3.2.7]
K23393  lipid II isoglutaminyl synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) [EC:6.3.5.13]
K07009  lipid II isoglutaminyl synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) [EC:6.3.5.13]
K11693  peptidoglycan pentaglycine glycine transferase (the first glycine) [EC:2.3.2.16]
K11694  peptidoglycan pentaglycine glycine transferase (the second and third glycine) [EC:2.3.2.17]
K11695  peptidoglycan pentaglycine glycine transferase (the fourth and fifth glycine) [EC:2.3.2.18]
K12551  monofunctional glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.129]
K04478  monofunctional glycosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.129]
K12552  penicillin-binding protein 1 [EC:3.4.-.-]
K12553  penicillin-binding protein 3 [EC:3.4.-.-]
K02545  penicillin-binding protein 2 prime [EC:3.4.16.4]
K05363  serine/alanine adding enzyme [EC:2.3.2.10]
K12554  alanine adding enzyme [EC:2.3.2.-]
K03693  penicillin-binding protein 1B
K00687  penicillin-binding protein 2B
K12556  penicillin-binding protein 2X
Compound
C00043  UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine
C00133  D-Alanine
C00448  trans,trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C00692  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate
C00993  D-Alanyl-D-alanine
C01050  UDP-N-acetylmuramate
C01212  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine
C04574  di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C04631  UDP-N-acetyl-3-(1-carboxyvinyl)-D-glucosamine
C04702  UDPMurNAc(oyl-L-Ala-D-gamma-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)
C04851  MurAc(oyl-L-Ala-D-gamma-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphospho-undecaprenol
C04877  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-2,6-diaminopimelate
C04882  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-6-carboxy-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C05892  UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-L-lysine
C05893  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C05894  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C05895  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-lysyl-(glycyl)5-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C05896  Crosslinked peptidoglycan
C05897  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-2,6-diaminopimeloyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C05898  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-2,6-diaminopimeloyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C17541  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-lysyl-(glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C17542  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-lysyl-(glycyl)3-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C17549  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(L-alanyl-L-alanyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C17550  Undecaprenyl-diphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetylglucosamine)-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(L-alanyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine
C17556  di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenyl phosphate
C17558  di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenol
Reference
  Authors
Bouhss A, Trunkfield AE, Bugg TD, Mengin-Lecreulx D
  Title
The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan lipid-linked intermediates.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:208-33 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2007.00089.x
Reference
  Authors
Lloyd AJ, Gilbey AM, Blewett AM, De Pascale G, El Zoeiby A, Levesque RC, Catherwood AC, Tomasz A, Bugg TD, Roper DI, Dowson CG
  Title
Characterization of tRNA-dependent peptide bond formation by MurM in the synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae peptidoglycan.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 283:6402-17 (2008)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M708105200
Reference
  Authors
Barreteau H, Kovac A, Boniface A, Sova M, Gobec S, Blanot D
  Title
Cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:168-207 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00104.x
Reference
  Authors
van Heijenoort J
  Title
Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit.
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 18:503-19 (2001)
DOI:10.1039/a804532a
Reference
  Authors
van Heijenoort  J
  Title
Formation of the glycan chains in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan.
  Journal
Glycobiology 11:25R-36R (2001)
DOI:10.1093/glycob/11.3.25R
Related
pathway
ko00520  Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
ko00900  Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
LinkDB

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