KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00900
ko00900                     Pathway                                

Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil monoterpenes and linalyl acetate, some sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and carotenoids and phytol. The mevalonate pathway, operating in the cytosol, gives rise to triterpenes, sterols, and most sesquiterpenes.
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
Pathway map
ko00900  Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis

M00095  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway [PATH:ko00900]
M00096  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-mevalonate pathway [PATH:ko00900]
M00364  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, bacteria [PATH:ko00900]
M00365  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, archaea [PATH:ko00900]
M00366  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, plants [PATH:ko00900]
M00367  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-plant eukaryotes [PATH:ko00900]
M00849  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway, archaea [PATH:ko00900]
M00921  Cyclooctatin biosynthesis, dimethylallyl-PP + isopentenyl-PP => cyclooctatin [PATH:ko00900]
H00206  Mevalonate kinase deficiency
H00527  Retinitis pigmentosa
H00663  Restrictive dermopathy
H00999  Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
H01123  HMG-CoA synthase deficiency
H01933  Porokeratosis
Other DBs
GO: 0009240 0016091
K01662  1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase [EC:]
K00099  1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase [EC:]
K00991  2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:]
K12506  2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase / 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase [EC:]
K00919  4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase [EC:]
K01770  2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase [EC:]
K03526  (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K03527  4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase [EC:]
K00626  acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase [EC:]
K01641  hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:]
K00021  hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) [EC:]
K00054  hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase [EC:]
K00869  mevalonate kinase [EC:]
K00938  phosphomevalonate kinase [EC:]
K13273  phosphomevalonate kinase [EC:]
K01597  diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase [EC:]
K17942  phosphomevalonate decarboxylase [EC:]
K06981  isopentenyl phosphate kinase [EC:]
K18689  mevalonate-3-kinase [EC:]
K18690  mevalonate-3-phosphate-5-kinase [EC:]
K22813  bisphosphomevalonate decarboxylase [EC:]
K01823  isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase [EC:]
K00787  farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K00795  farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K14066  geranyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K00804  geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type III [EC:]
K13789  geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type II [EC:]
K13787  geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type I [EC:]
K12503  short-chain Z-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K15887  (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K14215  trans,polycis-decaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K21273  trans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K05355  hexaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K21268  hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K21274  hexaprenyl-diphosphate synthase small subunit [EC:]
K21275  hexaprenyl-diphosphate synthase large subunit [EC:]
K00805  heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K02523  octaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K05356  all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K12504  decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase subunit 1 [EC:]
K12505  decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase subunit 2 [EC:]
K00806  undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K11778  ditrans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:]
K19177  dehydrodolichyl diphosphate syntase complex subunit NUS1 [EC:]
K15888  tritrans,polycis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [geranylgeranyl-diphosphate specific] [EC:]
K10960  geranylgeranyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl-bacteriochlorophyllide a reductase [EC:]
K12742  isoprene synthase [EC:]
K05955  protein farnesyltransferase/geranylgeranyltransferase type-1 subunit alpha [EC:]
K05954  protein farnesyltransferase subunit beta [EC:]
K08658  prenyl protein peptidase [EC:3.4.22.-]
K06013  STE24 endopeptidase [EC:]
K00587  protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase [EC:]
K15889  prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methylesterase [EC:3.1.1.-]
K05906  prenylcysteine oxidase / farnesylcysteine lyase [EC:]
K15890  NADP+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase [EC:]
K15891  NAD+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase [EC:]
K15892  farnesol kinase [EC:]
K15793  acyclic sesquiterpene synthase [EC:]
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00129  Isopentenyl diphosphate
C00235  Dimethylallyl diphosphate
C00332  Acetoacetyl-CoA
C00341  Geranyl diphosphate
C00353  Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
C00356  (S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
C00418  (R)-Mevalonate
C00448  trans,trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C01107  (R)-5-Phosphomevalonate
C01126  (2E,6E)-Farnesol
C01143  (R)-5-Diphosphomevalonate
C01230  all-trans-Hexaprenyl diphosphate
C02321  cis-1,4-Polyisoprene
C03461  2-trans,6-trans-Farnesal
C04145  all-trans-Nonaprenyl diphosphate
C04146  all-trans-Octaprenyl diphosphate
C04216  all-trans-Heptaprenyl diphosphate
C04506  Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine
C04574  di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C04748  Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methyl ester
C05427  Phytyl diphosphate
C05859  Dehydrodolichol diphosphate
C06081  Polyprenol
C11434  2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate
C11435  4-(Cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11436  2-Phospho-4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11437  1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
C11453  2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate
C11811  1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate
C16521  Isoprene
C16826  2-cis,6-trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C17432  all-trans-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C18321  trans,octacis-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C19691  Farnesylcysteine
C19760  (2Z,6Z)-Farnesyl diphosphate
C19852  tritrans,heptacis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C19853  trans,polycis-Polyprenyl diphosphate
C20120  S-Farnesyl protein
C20121  trans,trans-Farnesyl phosphate
C20345  Isopentenyl phosphate
C20847  (R)-Mevalonate 3-phosphate
C20848  (R)-Mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate
Lange BM, Ghassemian M.
Genome organization in Arabidopsis thaliana: a survey for genes involved in isoprenoid and chlorophyll metabolism.
Plant Mol Biol 51:925-48 (2003)
Saiki R, Nagata A, Kainou T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M
Characterization of solanesyl and decaprenyl diphosphate synthases in mice and humans.
FEBS J 272:5606-22 (2005)
Sato M, Sato K, Nishikawa S, Hirata A, Kato J, Nakano A
The yeast RER2 gene, identified by endoplasmic reticulum protein localization mutations, encodes cis-prenyltransferase, a key enzyme in dolichol synthesis.
Mol Cell Biol 19:471-83 (1999)
Vannice JC, Skaff DA, Keightley A, Addo JK, Wyckoff GJ, Miziorko HM
Identification in Haloferax volcanii of phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase as catalysts of the terminal enzyme reactions in an  archaeal alternate mevalonate pathway.
J Bacteriol 196:1055-63 (2014)
ko00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
ko00100  Steroid biosynthesis
ko00130  Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
ko00403  Indole diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis
ko00510  N-Glycan biosynthesis
ko00902  Monoterpenoid biosynthesis
ko00904  Diterpenoid biosynthesis
ko00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ko00908  Zeatin biosynthesis
ko00909  Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis

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