KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00920
Entry
ko00920                     Pathway                                

Name
Sulfur metabolism
Description
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
Pathway map
ko00920  Sulfur metabolism
ko00920

Module
M00021  Cysteine biosynthesis, serine => cysteine [PATH:ko00920]
M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:ko00920]
M00595  Thiosulfate oxidation by SOX complex, thiosulfate => sulfate [PATH:ko00920]
M00596  Dissimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:ko00920]
Disease
H00761  SEMD, Pakistani type
H01237  Sulfite oxidase deficiency
H02306  Chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations, GPAPP type
Other DBs
GO: 0006790
Orthology
K02048  sulfate/thiosulfate transport system substrate-binding protein
K23163  sulfate/thiosulfate transport system substrate-binding protein
K02046  sulfate/thiosulfate transport system permease protein
K02047  sulfate/thiosulfate transport system permease protein
K02045  sulfate/thiosulfate transport system ATP-binding protein [EC:7.3.2.3]
K15551  taurine transport system substrate-binding protein
K15552  taurine transport system permease protein
K10831  taurine transport system ATP-binding protein [EC:7.6.2.7]
K03119  taurine dioxygenase [EC:1.14.11.17]
K15553  sulfonate transport system substrate-binding protein
K15554  sulfonate transport system permease protein
K15555  sulfonate transport system ATP-binding protein [EC:7.6.2.14]
K04091  alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.5]
K00299  FMN reductase [EC:1.5.1.38]
K13811  3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase [EC:2.7.7.4 2.7.1.25]
K00955  bifunctional enzyme CysN/CysC [EC:2.7.7.4 2.7.1.25]
K00956  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [EC:2.7.7.4]
K00957  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [EC:2.7.7.4]
K00958  sulfate adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.4]
K00988  sulfate adenylyltransferase (ADP) / ATP adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.5 2.7.7.53]
K22966  sulfate adenylyltransferase (ADP) / adenylylsulfatase [EC:2.7.7.5 3.6.2.1]
K00860  adenylylsulfate kinase [EC:2.7.1.25]
K01082  3'(2'), 5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [EC:3.1.3.7]
K15759  Golgi-resident PAP phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.7]
K15422  3'(2'), 5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase / inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.7 3.1.3.57]
K06881  bifunctional oligoribonuclease and PAP phosphatase NrnA [EC:3.1.3.7 3.1.13.3]
K00394  adenylylsulfate reductase, subunit A [EC:1.8.99.2]
K00395  adenylylsulfate reductase, subunit B [EC:1.8.99.2]
K05907  adenylyl-sulfate reductase (glutathione) [EC:1.8.4.9]
K00390  phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [EC:1.8.4.8 1.8.4.10]
K00387  sulfite oxidase [EC:1.8.3.1]
K05301  sulfite dehydrogenase (cytochrome) subunit A [EC:1.8.2.1]
K00386  sulfite dehydrogenase (cytochrome) subunit B [EC:1.8.2.1]
K21307  sulfite dehydrogenase (quinone) subunit SoeA [EC:1.8.5.6]
K21308  sulfite dehydrogenase (quinone) subunit SoeB
K21309  sulfite dehydrogenase (quinone) subunit SoeC
K17222  L-cysteine S-thiosulfotransferase [EC:2.8.5.2]
K17223  L-cysteine S-thiosulfotransferase [EC:2.8.5.2]
K17226  sulfur-oxidizing protein SoxY
K17227  sulfur-oxidizing protein SoxZ
K17224  S-sulfosulfanyl-L-cysteine sulfohydrolase [EC:3.1.6.20]
K17225  sulfane dehydrogenase subunit SoxC
K22622  S-disulfanyl-L-cysteine oxidoreductase SoxD [EC:1.8.2.6]
K11180  dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit [EC:1.8.99.5]
K11181  dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit [EC:1.8.99.5]
K00380  sulfite reductase (NADPH) flavoprotein alpha-component [EC:1.8.1.2]
K00381  sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein beta-component [EC:1.8.1.2]
K16950  anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit A
K16951  anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit B
K00385  anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit C
K00392  sulfite reductase (ferredoxin) [EC:1.8.7.1]
K17218  sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase [EC:1.8.5.4]
K17995  sulfhydrogenase subunit gamma (sulfur reductase) [EC:1.12.98.4]
K17996  sulfhydrogenase subunit beta (sulfur reductase) [EC:1.12.98.4]
K17993  sulfhydrogenase subunit alpha [EC:1.12.1.3 1.12.1.5]
K17994  sulfhydrogenase subunit delta [EC:1.12.1.3 1.12.1.5]
K17229  sulfide dehydrogenase [flavocytochrome c] flavoprotein chain [EC:1.8.2.3]
K17230  cytochrome subunit of sulfide dehydrogenase
K16952  sulfur oxygenase/reductase [EC:1.13.11.55]
K17219  sulfur reductase molybdopterin subunit
K17220  sulfur reductase FeS subunit
K17221  sulfur reductase membrane anchor
K22470  eukaryotic sulfide quinone oxidoreductase [EC:1.8.5.8]
K17725  sulfur dioxygenase [EC:1.13.11.18]
K16936  thiosulfate dehydrogenase (quinone) small subunit [EC:1.8.5.2]
K16937  thiosulfate dehydrogenase (quinone) large subunit [EC:1.8.5.2]
K05908  thiosulfate dehydrogenase (quinone) [EC:1.8.5.2]
K08357  tetrathionate reductase subunit A
K08358  tetrathionate reductase subunit B
K08359  tetrathionate reductase subunit C
K08352  thiosulfate reductase / polysulfide reductase chain A [EC:1.8.5.5]
K08353  thiosulfate reductase electron transport protein
K08354  thiosulfate reductase cytochrome b subunit
K01011  thiosulfate/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.1 2.8.1.2]
K02439  thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.1]
K00640  serine O-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.30]
K23304  serine O-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.30]
K10150  cysteine synthase / O-phosphoserine sulfhydrylase / cystathionine beta-synthase [EC:2.5.1.47 2.5.1.65 4.2.1.22]
K01738  cysteine synthase [EC:2.5.1.47]
K13034  L-3-cyanoalanine synthase/ cysteine synthase [EC:2.5.1.47 4.4.1.9]
K17069  O-acetylhomoserine/O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase [EC:2.5.1.49 2.5.1.47]
K00651  homoserine O-succinyltransferase/O-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.46 2.3.1.31]
K00641  homoserine O-acetyltransferase/O-succinyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.31 2.3.1.46]
K01739  cystathionine gamma-synthase [EC:2.5.1.48]
K10764  O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [EC:2.5.1.-]
K17217  cystathionine gamma-lyase / homocysteine desulfhydrase [EC:4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2]
K17285  methanethiol oxidase [EC:1.8.3.4]
K17228  dimethylsulfone monooxygenase [EC:1.14.14.35]
K16968  methanesulfonate monooxygenase subunit alpha [EC:1.14.13.111]
K16969  methanesulfonate monooxygenase subunit beta [EC:1.14.13.111]
K15762  toluene monooxygenase system ferredoxin subunit
K15765  toluene monooxygenase electron transfer component [EC:1.18.1.3]
K07306  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit A [EC:1.8.5.3]
K07307  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit B
K07308  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit C
K00184  dimethyl sulfoxide reductase iron-sulfur subunit
K00185  dimethyl sulfoxide reductase membrane subunit
K16964  dimethylsulfide dehydrogenase subunit alpha [EC:1.8.2.4]
K16965  dimethylsulfide dehydrogenase subunit beta
K16966  dimethylsulfide dehydrogenase subunit gamma
K16953  dimethylpropiothetin dethiomethylase [EC:4.4.1.3]
K17486  dimethylsulfoniopropionate demethylase [EC:2.1.1.269]
K20034  3-(methylthio)propionyl---CoA ligase [EC:6.2.1.44]
K20035  3-(methylthio)propanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase [EC:1.3.8.-]
K20036  (methylthio)acryloyl-CoA hydratase [EC:4.2.1.155]
K16967  dimethyl-sulfide monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.131]
K21310  methanethiol S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.334]
K16954  methylthiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.251]
K16955  methylated-thiol--corrinoid protein
Compound
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
  Title
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.09.001
Reference
  Authors
Fauque GD, Barton LL
  Title
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-398264-3.00001-2
Reference
  Authors
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
  Title
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s11120-010-9531-2
Reference
  Authors
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
  Title
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02370.x
Reference
  Authors
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
  Title
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00116
Reference
  Authors
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
  Title
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JB.188.4.1473-1488.2006
Reference
PMID:9695921
  Authors
Pott AS, Dahl C
  Title
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
  Journal
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
DOI:10.1099/00221287-144-7-1881
Reference
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
  Title
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)00002-7
Related
pathway
ko00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ko00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
ko00680  Methane metabolism
ko00720  Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
LinkDB

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