KEGG   PATHWAY: ko02026
ko02026                     Pathway                                

Biofilm formation - Escherichia coli
Bacteria inhabiting a biofilm are protected from physical stress, antimicrobials, and the host immune system, and thereby cause severe medical, environmental, and technical problems. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli is regulated by two inversely controlled transcriptional feedforward cascades, the FlhDC/FliA cascade and the sigmaS/MlrA/CsgD cascade, which are active in post-exponentially growing and in stationary phase cells, respectively. Their final outputs, flagella production or the synthesis of the biofilm matrix components curli and cellulose, are mutually exclusive due to complementary sigma factor requirements, the abundant DNA-binding regulator FliZ, and opposite regulation by c-di-GMP. The RNA-binding protein CsrA, a central component of the global regulatory system, inhibits synthesis of the poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine (PGA) exopolysaccharide and glycogen and stimulates the expression of the flagellar master regulator FlhDC. CsrA activity is counteracted by two sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC. The lower figure shows that FlhDC, sigmaS, and CsgD, the transcription factors that control large regulons involved in flagellar and biofilm formation, serve as regulatory hubs for multiple environmental signal integration with a series of sRNAs providing distinct inputs.
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
ko02026  Biofilm formation - Escherichia coli

K02777  sugar PTS system EIIA component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K05851  adenylate cyclase, class 1 [EC:]
K10914  CRP/FNR family transcriptional regulator, cyclic AMP receptor protein
K02403  flagellar transcriptional activator FlhD
K02402  flagellar transcriptional activator FlhC
K02398  negative regulator of flagellin synthesis FlgM
K02405  RNA polymerase sigma factor FliA
K02425  regulator of sigma S factor FliZ
K06204  DnaK suppressor protein
K03087  RNA polymerase nonessential primary-like sigma factor
K21084  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K21085  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K21086  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K21087  flagellar brake protein
K21088  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K14051  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase Gmr [EC:]
K21089  MerR family transcriptional regulator, activator of the csg genes
K04333  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, csgAB operon transcriptional regulatory protein
K04335  minor curlin subunit
K04334  major curlin subunit
K04336  curli production protein
K18968  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K21090  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K00694  cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) [EC:]
K07173  S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase [EC:]
K11531  lsr operon transcriptional repressor
K01991  polysaccharide biosynthesis/export protein
K12687  antigen 43
K07782  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator SdiA
K07678  two-component system, NarL family, sensor histidine kinase BarA [EC:]
K07689  two-component system, NarL family, invasion response regulator UvrY
K18515  small regulatory RNA CsrB
K18516  small regulatory RNA CsrC
K03563  carbon storage regulator
K00975  glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K00703  starch synthase [EC:]
K00688  glycogen phosphorylase [EC:]
K11935  biofilm PGA synthesis protein PgaA
K11931  poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine N-deacetylase [EC:3.5.1.-]
K11936  poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine synthase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K11937  biofilm PGA synthesis protein PgaD
K04761  LysR family transcriptional regulator, hydrogen peroxide-inducible genes activator
K18528  small regulatory RNA OxyS
K07648  two-component system, OmpR family, aerobic respiration control sensor histidine kinase ArcB [EC:]
K07773  two-component system, OmpR family, aerobic respiration control protein ArcA
K18504  small regulatory RNA ArcZ
K18502  small regulatory RNA DsrA
K07677  two-component system, NarL family, capsular synthesis sensor histidine kinase RcsC [EC:]
K07676  two-component system, NarL family, sensor histidine kinase RcsD [EC:]
K07687  two-component system, NarL family, captular synthesis response regulator RcsB
K07781  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, capsular biosynthesis positive transcription factor
K18518  small regulatory RNA RprA
K03566  LysR family transcriptional regulator, glycine cleavage system transcriptional activator
K03567  glycine cleavage system transcriptional repressor
K18521  small regulatory RNA GcvB
K07638  two-component system, OmpR family, osmolarity sensor histidine kinase EnvZ [EC:]
K07659  two-component system, OmpR family, phosphate regulon response regulator OmpR
K18522  small regulatory RNA OmrA
K18523  small regulatory RNA OmrB
K21091  small regulatory RNA McaS
K18509  small regulatory RNA RydC
C00037  Glycine
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01228  Guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate)
C04494  Guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate
C16463  3',5'-Cyclic diGMP
C21382  R-THMF
Mika F, Hengge R
Small RNAs in the control of RpoS, CsgD, and biofilm architecture of Escherichia coli.
RNA Biol 11:494-507 (2014)
Mika F, Hengge R
Small Regulatory RNAs in the Control of Motility and Biofilm Formation in E. coli and Salmonella.
Int J Mol Sci 14:4560-79 (2013)
Hengge R
Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:263-73 (2009)
Chambers JR, Sauer K
Small RNAs and their role in biofilm formation.
Trends Microbiol 21:39-49 (2013)
Martinez LC, Vadyvaloo V
Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:38 (2014)
Kalia D, Merey G, Nakayama S, Zheng Y, Zhou J, Luo Y, Guo M, Roembke BT, Sintim HO
Nucleotide, c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, cGMP, cAMP, (p)ppGpp signaling in bacteria and implications in pathogenesis.
Chem Soc Rev 42:305-41 (2013)
Seyll E, Van Melderen L
The ribonucleoprotein Csr network.
Int J Mol Sci 14:22117-31 (2013)
Pesavento C, Becker G, Sommerfeldt N, Possling A, Tschowri N, Mehlis A, Hengge R
Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli.
Genes Dev 22:2434-46 (2008)
Huang YH, Ferrieres L, Clarke DJ
The role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Enterobacteriaceae.
Res Microbiol 157:206-12 (2006)
Li J, Attila C, Wang L, Wood TK, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE
Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli is signaled by AI-2/LsrR: effects on small RNA and biofilm architecture.
J Bacteriol 189:6011-20 (2007)
ko02024  Quorum sensing
ko02040  Flagellar assembly

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