KEGG   PATHWAY: ko03030
Entry
ko03030                     Pathway                                

Name
DNA replication
Description
A complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (DnaB or MCM complex) precedes the DNA synthetic machinery and unwinds the duplex parental DNA in cooperation with the SSB or RPA. On the leading strand, replication occurs continuously in a 5 to 3 direction, whereas on the lagging strand, DNA replication occurs discontinuously by synthesis and joining of short Okazaki fragments. In prokaryotes, the leading strand replication apparatus consists of a DNA polymerase (pol III core), a sliding clamp (beta), and a clamp loader (gamma delta complex). The DNA primase (DnaG) is needed to form RNA primers. Normally, during replication of the lagging-strand DNA template, an RNA primer is removed either by an RNase H or by the 5 to 3 exonuclease activity of DNA pol I, and the DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments. In eukaryotes, three DNA polymerases (alpha, delta, and epsilon) have been identified. DNA primase forms a permanent complex with DNA polymerase alpha. PCNA and RFC function as a clamp and a clamp loader. FEN 1 and RNase H1 remove the RNA from the Okazaki fragments and DNA ligase I joins the DNA.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Replication and repair
Pathway map
ko03030  DNA replication
ko03030

Disease
H00290  Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
H02369  IMAGE-I syndrome
H02370  FILS syndrome
Orthology
K02345  DNA polymerase III subunit theta [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02342  DNA polymerase III subunit epsilon [EC:2.7.7.7]
K14159  ribonuclease HI / DNA polymerase III subunit epsilon [EC:3.1.26.4 2.7.7.7]
K02337  DNA polymerase III subunit alpha [EC:2.7.7.7]
K03763  DNA polymerase III subunit alpha, Gram-positive type [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02343  DNA polymerase III subunit gamma/tau [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02341  DNA polymerase III subunit delta' [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02340  DNA polymerase III subunit delta [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02344  DNA polymerase III subunit psi [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02339  DNA polymerase III subunit chi [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02338  DNA polymerase III subunit beta [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02314  replicative DNA helicase [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02316  DNA primase [EC:2.7.7.101]
K03111  single-strand DNA-binding protein
K03469  ribonuclease HI [EC:3.1.26.4]
K22316  ribonuclease H / adenosylcobalamin/alpha-ribazole phosphatase [EC:3.1.26.4 3.1.3.73]
K03470  ribonuclease HII [EC:3.1.26.4]
K03471  ribonuclease HIII [EC:3.1.26.4]
K02335  DNA polymerase I [EC:2.7.7.7]
K01972  DNA ligase (NAD+) [EC:6.5.1.2]
K02319  DNA polymerase, archaea type [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02323  DNA polymerase II small subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02322  DNA polymerase II large subunit [EC:2.7.7.7]
K10726  replicative DNA helicase Mcm [EC:3.6.4.-]
K02683  DNA primase small subunit [EC:2.7.7.102]
K18882  DNA primase large subunit
K07466  replication factor A1
K04802  proliferating cell nuclear antigen
K04801  replication factor C small subunit
K04800  replication factor C large subunit
K10742  DNA replication ATP-dependent helicase Dna2 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K04799  flap endonuclease-1 [EC:3.-.-.-]
K10747  DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7]
K02320  DNA polymerase alpha subunit A [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02321  DNA polymerase alpha subunit B
K02684  DNA primase small subunit [EC:2.7.7.102]
K02685  DNA primase large subunit
K02327  DNA polymerase delta subunit 1 [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02328  DNA polymerase delta subunit 2
K03504  DNA polymerase delta subunit 3
K03505  DNA polymerase delta subunit 4
K02324  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 1 [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02325  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 2 [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02326  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 3 [EC:2.7.7.7]
K03506  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 4 [EC:2.7.7.7]
K02540  DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02541  DNA replication licensing factor MCM3 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02212  DNA replication licensing factor MCM4 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02209  DNA replication licensing factor MCM5 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02542  DNA replication licensing factor MCM6 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K02210  DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K10739  replication factor A2
K10741  replication factor A4
K10740  replication factor A3
K10754  replication factor C subunit 1
K10755  replication factor C subunit 2/4
K10756  replication factor C subunit 3/5
K10743  ribonuclease H2 subunit A [EC:3.1.26.4]
K10744  ribonuclease H2 subunit B
K10745  ribonuclease H2 subunit C
Reference
PMID:8087839
  Authors
Stillman B.
  Title
Smart machines at the DNA replication fork.
  Journal
Cell 78:725-8 (1994)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(94)90362-X
Reference
PMID:9759502
  Authors
Waga S, Stillman B.
  Title
The DNA replication fork in eukaryotic cells.
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 67:721-51 (1998)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.67.1.721
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