KEGG   PATHWAY: ko03450Help
Entry
ko03450                     Pathway                                

Name
Non-homologous end-joining
Description
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) eliminates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by direct ligation. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation. A recent study shows that bacteria accomplish NHEJ using just two proteins (Ku and DNA ligase), whereas eukaryotes require many factors. NHEJ repairs DSBs at all stages of the cell cycle, bringing about the ligation of two DNA DSBs without the need for sequence homology, and so is error-prone.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Replication and repair
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko03450  Non-homologous end-joining
ko03450

Ortholog table
Disease
H00924  Severe combined immunodeficiency with microcephaly, growth retardation, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation
H01344  Nijmegen syndrome
H02015  LIG4 syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0006303
Orthology
K10979  DNA end-binding protein Ku
K01971  bifunctional non-homologous end joining protein LigD [EC:6.5.1.1]
K10884  ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 1
K10885  ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 2
K10887  DNA cross-link repair 1C protein [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06642  DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit [EC:2.7.11.1]
K03512  DNA polymerase lambda [EC:2.7.7.7 4.2.99.-]
K03513  DNA polymerase mu [EC:2.7.7.7]
K00977  DNA nucleotidylexotransferase [EC:2.7.7.31]
K10777  DNA ligase 4 [EC:6.5.1.1]
K10886  DNA-repair protein XRCC4
K10980  non-homologous end-joining factor 1
K10866  DNA repair protein RAD50 [EC:3.6.-.-]
K10865  double-strand break repair protein MRE11
K10868  DNA repair protein XRS2
K10981  DNA polymerase IV [EC:2.7.7.7]
K04799  flap endonuclease-1 [EC:3.-.-.-]
K10982  ligase-interacting factor 1
K10983  non-homologous end-joining protein 1
Reference
  Authors
Gennery AR.
  Title
Primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with defective DNA double-strand break repair.
  Journal
Br Med Bull 77-78:71-85 (2006)
DOI:10.1093/bmb/ldl006
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Y, Hefferin ML, Chen L, Shim EY, Tseng HM, Kwon Y, Sung P, Lee SE, Tomkinson AE.
  Title
Role of Dnl4-Lif1 in nonhomologous end-joining repair complex assembly and suppression of homologous recombination.
  Journal
Nat Struct Mol Biol 14:639-46 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nsmb1261
Reference
  Authors
Wyman C, Kanaar R.
  Title
DNA double-strand break repair: all's well that ends well.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 40:363-83 (2006)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.genet.40.110405.090451
Reference
  Authors
Weller GR, Brandt VL, Roth DB.
  Title
Doing more with less in bacterial DNA repair.
  Journal
Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:1158-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nsmb1204-1158
Reference
  Authors
Weller GR, Kysela B, Roy R, Tonkin LM, Scanlan E, Della M, Devine SK, Day JP, Wilkinson A, d'Adda di Fagagna F, Devine KM, Bowater RP, Jeggo PA, Jackson SP, Doherty AJ.
  Title
Identification of a DNA nonhomologous end-joining complex in bacteria.
  Journal
Science 297:1686-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1126/science.1074584
Reference
  Authors
Pitcher RS, Brissett NC, Doherty AJ.
  Title
Nonhomologous end-joining in bacteria: a microbial perspective.
  Journal
Annu Rev Microbiol 61:259-82 (2007)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093354
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