KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04144Help
Entry
ko04144                     Pathway                                

Name
Endocytosis
Description
Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins entering through clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) have sequences in their cytoplasmic domains that bind to the APs (adaptor-related protein complexes) and enable their rapid removal from the PM. In addition to APs and clathrin, there are numerous accessory proteins including dynamin. Depending on the various proteins that enter the endosome membrane, these cargoes are sorted to distinct destinations. Some cargoes, such as nutrient receptors, are recycled back to the PM. Ubiquitylated membrane proteins, such as activated growth-factor receptors, are sorted into intraluminal vesicles and eventually end up in the lysosome lumen via multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). There are distinct mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) depending upon the cargo and the cell type.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko04144  Endocytosis
ko04144

Ortholog table
Module
M00408  ESCRT-0 complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00409  ESCRT-I complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00410  ESCRT-II complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00412  ESCRT-III complex [PATH:ko04144]
Disease
H00078  Frontotemporal lobar degeneration
H00155  Familial hypercholesterolemia
H00265  Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy
H00567  Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C
H00593  Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
H00642  Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome
H00700  Centronuclear myopathy
H00800  Loeys-Dietz syndrome
H01232  Syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease
H01295  Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport deficiency
H01383  Hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa
H01523  Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
H01918  Familial autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
H02179  Rippling muscle disease
H02181  Idiopathic hyperCKemia
H02182  Distal myopathy, Tateyama type
H02190  CBL syndrome
Other DBs
BSID: 102181
GO: 0006897
Orthology
K07941  ADP-ribosylation factor 6
K00889  1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase [EC:2.7.1.68]
K13712  phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-like protein 1 [EC:2.7.1.68]
K01115  phospholipase D1/2 [EC:3.1.4.4]
K01528  dynamin GTPase [EC:3.6.5.5]
K04644  clathrin light chain A
K04645  clathrin light chain B
K04646  clathrin heavy chain
K11824  AP-2 complex subunit alpha
K11825  AP-2 complex subunit beta-1
K11826  AP-2 complex subunit mu-1
K11827  AP-2 complex subunit sigma-1
K12469  EH domain-containing protein 2
K04674  TGF-beta receptor type-1 [EC:2.7.11.30]
K04388  TGF-beta receptor type-2 [EC:2.7.11.30]
K04679  MAD, mothers against decapentaplegic interacting protein
K10054  probable transcription factor PML
K04500  mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3
K06503  transferrin receptor
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04363  platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05093  fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05094  fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05095  fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05087  insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04707  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL [EC:2.3.2.27]
K22517  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-B [EC:2.3.2.27]
K22518  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-C [EC:2.3.2.27]
K12470  SH3 domain-containing kinase-binding protein 1
K11247  endophilin-A
K11248  endophilin-B1
K21269  endophilin-B2
K12562  amphiphysin
K12471  epsin
K12472  epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15
K19366  spartin
K04551  ubiquitin B
K10591  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4 [EC:2.3.2.26]
K13305  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like [EC:2.3.2.26]
K06643  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:2.3.2.27]
K03175  TNF receptor-associated factor 6 [EC:2.3.2.27]
K11981  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NRDP1 [EC:2.3.2.27]
K05632  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Itchy [EC:2.3.2.26]
K04678  E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF1/2 [EC:2.3.2.26]
K05633  NEDD4-like E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase WWP1 [EC:2.3.2.26]
K12473  low-density lipoprotein receptor
K12474  low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1
K12475  disabled homolog 2
K04180  C-C chemokine receptor type 5
K04175  C-X-C chemokine receptor type 1
K05050  C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2
K04189  C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4
K00909  rhodopsin kinase [EC:2.7.11.14]
K00910  beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.15]
K08291  G protein-coupled receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.16]
K04439  beta-arrestin
K05747  Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
K05757  actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A/1B
K05758  actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2
K05756  actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3
K05755  actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4
K05754  actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5
K19475  WAS/WASL-interacting protein
K03283  heat shock 70kDa protein 1/2/6/8
K09526  DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 6
K18465  WASH complex subunit 7
K18464  WASH complex subunit strumpellin
K18462  WASH complex subunit FAM21
K18461  WAS protein family homolog 1
K18463  WASH complex subunit CCDC53
K10364  capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha
K10365  capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta
K18467  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 29
K18466  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 26
K18468  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 35
K17918  sorting nexin-3/12
K11839  ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 8 [EC:3.4.19.12]
K11866  STAM-binding protein [EC:3.4.19.12]
K07897  Ras-related protein Rab-7A
K12182  hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate
K04705  signal transducing adaptor molecule
K12183  ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101
K12186  ESCRT-I complex subunit MVB12
K12187  ESCRT-I complex subunit MVB12
K12184  ESCRT-I complex subunit VPS28
K12185  ESCRT-I complex subunit VPS37
K12188  ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS22
K12190  ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS36
K12189  ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS25
K12195  charged multivesicular body protein 6
K12194  charged multivesicular body protein 4
K12193  charged multivesicular body protein 3
K12191  charged multivesicular body protein 2A
K12192  charged multivesicular body protein 2B
K15053  charged multivesicular body protein 7
K12196  vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 4
K12199  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein VTA1
K12197  charged multivesicular body protein 1
K12198  charged multivesicular body protein 5
K19476  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein IST1
K12200  programmed cell death 6-interacting protein
K19367  maspardin
K06564  insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor
K17917  sorting nexin-1/2
K17920  sorting nexin-5/6/32
K05704  tyrosine-protein kinase Src [EC:2.7.10.2]
K02833  GTPase HRas
K05068  interleukin 2 receptor alpha
K05069  interleukin 2 receptor beta
K05070  interleukin 2 receptor gamma
K04513  Ras homolog gene family, member A
K06751  major histocompatibility complex, class I
K13649  folate receptor
K06278  caveolin 1
K12958  caveolin 2
K12959  caveolin 3
K12476  EH domain-containing protein 3
K12477  EH domain-containing protein 4
K12478  early endosome antigen 1
K07887  Ras-related protein Rab-5A
K07888  Ras-related protein Rab-5B
K07889  Ras-related protein Rab-5C
K12480  Rab GTPase-binding effector protein 1
K12481  rabenosyn-5
K07879  Ras-related protein Rab-4A
K12482  RUN and FYVE domain-containing protein 1
K12483  EH domain-containing protein 1
K12479  vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 45
K17919  sorting nexin-4
K07891  Ras-related protein Rab-22
K07903  Ras-related protein Rab-10
K07901  Ras-related protein Rab-8A
K07876  Ras-related protein Rab-35
K07904  Ras-related protein Rab-11A
K07905  Ras-related protein Rab-11B
K12484  Rab11 family-interacting protein 1/2/5
K19368  protrudin
K10396  kinesin family member 5
K12485  Rab11 family-interacting protein 3/4
K04237  partitioning defective protein 3
K06093  partitioning defective protein 6
K18952  atypical protein kinase C zeta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K06069  atypical protein kinase C iota type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04393  cell division control protein 42
K12486  stromal membrane-associated protein
K05737  G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor 1
K12487  G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor 2
K12488  Arf-GAP with SH3 domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein
K12489  Arf-GAP with coiled-coil, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein
K18439  Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1
K18440  Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2
K12490  Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 3
K12491  Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1/3
K17848  Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2
K12492  ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 1
K12493  ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 2/3
K12494  PH and SEC7 domain-containing protein
K12495  IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein
K18441  cytohesin
K18442  brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein
K18443  golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1
K07937  ADP-ribosylation factor 1
K07938  ADP-ribosylation factor 3
K07940  ADP-ribosylation factor 5
Compound
C00035  GDP
C00044  GTP
C04549  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C04637  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C11556  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,5-bisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Acconcia F, Sigismund S, Polo S
  Title
Ubiquitin in trafficking: the network at work.
  Journal
Exp Cell Res 315:1610-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.10.014
Reference
  Authors
Donaldson JG, Porat-Shliom N, Cohen LA
  Title
Clathrin-independent endocytosis: a unique platform for cell signaling and PM remodeling.
  Journal
Cell Signal 21:1-6 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.06.020
Reference
  Authors
Sorkin A
  Title
Cargo recognition during clathrin-mediated endocytosis: a team effort.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 16:392-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2004.06.001
Reference
  Authors
Raiborg C, Stenmark H
  Title
The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins.
  Journal
Nature 458:445-52 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nature07961
Reference
  Authors
Scita G, Di Fiore PP
  Title
The endocytic matrix.
  Journal
Nature 463:464-73 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/nature08910
Reference
  Authors
Le Roy C, Wrana JL
  Title
Clathrin- and non-clathrin-mediated endocytic regulation of cell signalling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:112-26 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1571
Reference
  Authors
Jovic M, Sharma M, Rahajeng J, Caplan S
  Title
The early endosome: a busy sorting station for proteins at the crossroads.
  Journal
Histol Histopathol 25:99-112 (2010)
DOI:10.14670/HH-25.99
Reference
  Authors
Pietiainen VM, Marjomaki V, Heino J, Hyypia T
  Title
Viral entry, lipid rafts and caveosomes.
  Journal
Ann Med 37:394-403 (2005)
DOI:10.1080/07853890510011976
Reference
  Authors
Grant BD, Donaldson JG
  Title
Pathways and mechanisms of endocytic recycling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:597-608 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrm2755
Reference
  Authors
Cullen PJ, Korswagen HC
  Title
Sorting nexins provide diversity for retromer-dependent trafficking events.
  Journal
Nat Cell Biol 14:29-37 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/ncb2374
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