Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst-stage embryos. iPS cells are generated by reprogramming somatic cells back to pluripotent state with defined reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (also known as Yamanaka factors). PSCs including ES cells and iPS cells are categorized into two groups by their morphology, gene expression profile and external signal dependence. Conventional mouse-type ES/iPS cells are called 'naive state' cells. They are mainly maintained under the control of LIF and BMP signaling. On the other hand, human-type ES/iPS cells, which are in need of Activin and FGF signaling, are termed 'primed state'. However, these signaling pathways converge towards the activation of a core transcriptional network that is similar in both groups and involves OCt4, Nanog and Sox2. The three transcription factors and their downstream target genes coordinately promote self-renewal and pluripotency.
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - eukaryotes
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells
Hereditary congenital facial paresis
leukemia inhibitory factor
leukemia inhibitory factor receptor
interleukin 6 signal transducer
Janus kinase 1 [EC:
Janus kinase 2 [EC:
Janus kinase 3 [EC:
signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
krueppel-like factor 4
transcription factor SOX2 (SOX group B)
Myc proto-oncogene protein
growth factor receptor-bound protein 2
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:
phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:
T-box protein 3
homeobox protein Nanog
inhibin beta A chain
inhibin beta B chain
inhibin beta C chain
inhibin beta E chain
activin receptor type-1B [EC:
activin receptor type-1C [EC:
activin receptor type-2A [EC:
activin receptor type-2B [EC:
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
bone morphogenetic protein 4
bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1A [EC:
bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B [EC:
activin receptor type-1 [EC:
bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 [EC:
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4
DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID1
DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID2
DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID3
DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID4
dual specificity phosphatase 9 [EC:
p38 MAP kinase [EC:
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 2
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 6
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 8
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 9
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 11
wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16
segment polarity protein dishevelled
glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [EC:
adenomatosis polyposis coli protein
catenin beta 1
transcription factor E2-alpha
estrogen-related receptor beta
transcription factor 7
POU domain transcription factor, class 5
fibroblast growth factor 2
fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [EC:
fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [EC:
fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [EC:
fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [EC:
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:
insulin-like growth factor 1
insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:
homeobox protein expressed in ES cells 1
zinc finger protein ZIC 3
left-right determination factor
SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A containing DEAD/H box 1 [EC:
histone acetyltransferase MYST3 [EC:
[histone H3]-N6,N6-dimethyl-lysine9 N-methyltransferase [EC:
RE1-silencing transcription factor
telomere-associated protein RIF1
polycomb group RING finger protein 1
polycomb group RING finger protein 2
polycomb group RING finger protein 3
polycomb group RING finger protein 4
polycomb group RING finger protein 5
polycomb group RING finger protein 6
paired box protein 6
homeobox protein Meis1
homeobox protein HoxA/B/D1
LIM homeobox protein 5
homeobox protein OTX1
heart-and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1
homeobox protein DLX5
myogenic factor 5
one cut domain, family member 1 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 6)
insulin gene enhancer protein ISL-1
AT-binding transcription factor 1
homeobox protein ESX1
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