KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04911
Entry
ko04911                     Pathway                                

Name
Insulin secretion
Description
Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-induced insulin secretion and its potentiation constitute the principal mechanism of insulin release. Glucose is transported by the glucose transporter (GLUT) into the pancreatic beta-cell. Metabolism of glucose generates ATP, which inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels and causes voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. Elevation of [Ca2+]i triggers exocytotic release of insulin granules. Insulin secretion is further regulated by several hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptide hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), increase cAMP levels and thereby potentiate insulin secretion via the combined action of PKA and Epac2. Achetylcholine (ACh), a major parasympathetic neurotransmitter, binds to Gq-coupled receptors and activates phospholipase C- (PLC-), and the stimulatory effects involve activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates exocytosis. In addition, ACh mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ by activation of IP3 receptors.
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
Pathway map
ko04911  Insulin secretion
ko04911

Disease
H00409  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
H01947  Fanconi-Bickel syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0030073
Orthology
K07299  MFS transporter, SP family, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1
K07593  MFS transporter, SP family, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2
K12407  glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K04979  transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4
K01539  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:7.2.2.13]
K01540  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K05032  ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (CFTR/MRP) member 8
K05004  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 11
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04515  calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II [EC:2.7.11.17]
K04936  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha member 1
K05274  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M alpha member 3
K04937  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M beta member 1
K04938  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M beta member 2
K04939  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M beta member 3
K04941  potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily M beta member 4
K04942  potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 1
K04943  potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2
K04944  potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 3
K04945  potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 4
K05259  glucagon
K04581  glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
K05258  gastric inhibitory polypeptide
K08424  glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor
K05262  pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
K04587  pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor
K04632  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha
K08041  adenylate cyclase 1 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08042  adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08043  adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08044  adenylate cyclase 4 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08045  adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08046  adenylate cyclase 6 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08047  adenylate cyclase 7 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08048  adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08049  adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K04345  protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K05870  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
K04450  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
K04374  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4
K09048  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3
K09047  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5
K09049  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta
K07594  insulin promoter factor 1
K04526  insulin
K04351  Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4
K15297  regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis protein 2
K16882  protein piccolo
K07882  Ras-related protein Rab-3A
K05226  cholecystokinin
K04194  cholecystokinin A receptor
K04131  muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
K04325  free fatty acid receptor 1
K04634  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha
K04635  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11
K05858  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, beta [EC:3.1.4.11]
K04960  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3
K04962  ryanodine receptor 2
K13504  vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
K04560  syntaxin 1A
K18211  synaptosomal-associated protein 25
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:2.7.11.13]
Compound
C00002  ATP
C00022  Pyruvate
C00031  D-Glucose
C00076  Calcium cation
C00092  D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C00162  Fatty acid
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01996  Acetylcholine
Reference
  Authors
Seino S, Shibasaki T, Minami K
  Title
Pancreatic beta-cell signaling: toward better understanding of diabetes and its treatment.
  Journal
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 86:563-77 (2010)
DOI:10.2183/pjab.86.563
Reference
  Authors
Jitrapakdee S, Wutthisathapornchai A, Wallace JC, MacDonald MJ
  Title
Regulation of insulin secretion: role of mitochondrial signalling.
  Journal
Diabetologia 53:1019-32 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s00125-010-1685-0
Reference
  Authors
Rorsman P, Braun M
  Title
Regulation of insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 75:155-79 (2013)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183754
Reference
PMID:9715374
  Authors
Jones PM, Persaud SJ
  Title
Protein kinases, protein phosphorylation, and the regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 19:429-61 (1998)
DOI:10.1210/edrv.19.4.0339
Reference
  Authors
MacDonald PE
  Title
Signal integration at the level of ion channel and exocytotic function in pancreatic beta-cells.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301:E1065-9 (2011)
DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00426.2011
Reference
PMID:9914469
  Authors
Lang J
  Title
Molecular mechanisms and regulation of insulin exocytosis as a paradigm of endocrine secretion.
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 259:3-17 (1999)
DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00043.x
Reference
  Authors
Kieffer TJ, Habener JF
  Title
The glucagon-like peptides.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 20:876-913 (1999)
DOI:10.1210/edrv.20.6.0385
Reference
  Authors
Girard J
  Title
The incretins: from the concept to their use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part A: incretins: concept and physiological functions.
  Journal
Diabetes Metab 34:550-9 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2008.09.001
Reference
  Authors
Holz GG
  Title
New insights concerning the glucose-dependent insulin secretagogue action of glucagon-like peptide-1 in pancreatic beta-cells.
  Journal
Horm Metab Res 36:787-94 (2004)
DOI:10.1055/s-2004-826165
Reference
  Authors
Holst JJ, Gromada J
  Title
Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E199-206 (2004)
DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00545.2003
Reference
  Authors
Doyle ME, Egan JM
  Title
Mechanisms of action of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the pancreas.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 113:546-93 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2006.11.007
Reference
  Authors
Kim W, Egan JM
  Title
The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment.
  Journal
Pharmacol Rev 60:470-512 (2008)
DOI:10.1124/pr.108.000604
Reference
  Authors
Seino S, Takahashi H, Fujimoto W, Shibasaki T
  Title
Roles of cAMP signalling in insulin granule exocytosis.
  Journal
Diabetes Obes Metab 11 Suppl 4:180-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01108.x
Reference
  Authors
Tengholm A
  Title
Cyclic AMP dynamics in the pancreatic beta-cell.
  Journal
Ups J Med Sci 117:355-69 (2012)
DOI:10.3109/03009734.2012.724732
Reference
  Authors
Holz GG
  Title
Epac: A new cAMP-binding protein in support of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-mediated signal transduction in the pancreatic beta-cell.
  Journal
Diabetes 53:5-13 (2004)
DOI:10.2337/diabetes.53.1.5
Reference
  Authors
Gloerich M, Bos JL
  Title
Epac: defining a new mechanism for cAMP action.
  Journal
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 50:355-75 (2010)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.010909.105714
Reference
  Authors
Bos JL
  Title
Epac proteins: multi-purpose cAMP targets.
  Journal
Trends Biochem Sci 31:680-6 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.10.002
Reference
  Authors
Filipsson K, Kvist-Reimer M, Ahren B
  Title
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and islet function.
  Journal
Diabetes 50:1959-69 (2001)
DOI:10.2337/diabetes.50.9.1959
Reference
  Authors
Kebede MA, Alquier T, Latour MG, Poitout V
  Title
Lipid receptors and islet function: therapeutic implications?
  Journal
Diabetes Obes Metab 11 Suppl 4:10-20 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01114.x
Reference
  Authors
Morgan NG, Dhayal S
  Title
G-protein coupled receptors mediating long chain fatty acid signalling in the pancreatic beta-cell.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 78:1419-27 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.07.020
Related
pathway
ko00020  Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ko05211  Renal cell carcinoma
LinkDB

DBGET integrated database retrieval system