KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04915
Entry
ko04915                     Pathway                                

Name
Estrogen signaling pathway
Description
Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as "nuclear-initiated steroid signaling" and "membrane-initiated steroid signaling". In the "nuclear" pathway, estrogen binds either ERalpha or ERbeta, which in turn translocates to the nucleus, binds DNA at ERE elements and activates the expression of ERE-dependent genes. In "membrane" pathway, Estrogen can exert its actions through a subpopulation of ER at the plasma membrane (mER) or novel G-protein coupled E2 receptors (GPER). Upon activation of these receptors various signaling pathways (i.e. Ca2+, cAMP, protein kinase cascades) are rapidly activated and ultimately influence downstream transcription factors.
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
Pathway map
ko04915  Estrogen signaling pathway
ko04915

Disease
H00684  Pachyonychia congenita
H00708  Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome
H02061  Estrogen resistance syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0030520
Orthology
K08550  estrogen receptor alpha
K08551  estrogen receptor beta
K04079  molecular chaperone HtpG
K09487  heat shock protein 90kDa beta
K09571  FK506-binding protein 4/5 [EC:5.2.1.8]
K03283  heat shock 70kDa protein 1/2/6/8
K09101  nuclear receptor coactivator 1 [EC:2.3.1.48]
K11255  nuclear receptor coactivator 2
K11256  nuclear receptor coactivator 3 [EC:2.3.1.48]
K02161  apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
K22455  estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated gene 9 protein
K07604  type I keratin, acidic
K01379  cathepsin D [EC:3.4.23.5]
K22456  trefoil factor 1
K08556  progesterone receptor
K08774  transforming growth factor, alpha
K08527  retinoic acid receptor alpha
K04379  proto-oncogene protein c-fos
K04448  transcription factor AP-1
K04684  transcription factor Sp1
K04246  G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1
K04632  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha
K05704  tyrosine-protein kinase Src [EC:2.7.10.2]
K01398  matrix metalloproteinase-2 (gelatinase A) [EC:3.4.24.24]
K01403  matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) [EC:3.4.24.35]
K08523  heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor
K08041  adenylate cyclase 1 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08042  adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08043  adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08044  adenylate cyclase 4 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08045  adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08046  adenylate cyclase 6 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08047  adenylate cyclase 7 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08048  adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08049  adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K04345  protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K05870  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
K04450  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
K04374  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4
K09048  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3
K09047  cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5
K09049  cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K06279  SHC-transforming protein 1
K17447  SHC-transforming protein 2
K17448  SHC-transforming protein 3
K17449  SHC-transforming protein 4
K04364  growth factor receptor-bound protein 2
K03099  son of sevenless
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04615  gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor
K04630  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha
K04534  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha
K04997  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 3
K05000  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 6
K05002  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 9
K04999  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 5
K05228  proopiomelanocortin
K04215  mu-type opioid receptor
K06068  novel protein kinase C delta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04634  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha
K05858  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, beta [EC:3.1.4.11]
K04958  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1
K04959  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2
K04960  inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3
K02183  calmodulin
K13242  nitric-oxide synthase, endothelial [EC:1.14.13.39]
K04603  metabotropic glutamate receptor 1
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00334  4-Aminobutanoate
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00951  Estradiol-17beta
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Zhang D, Trudeau VL
  Title
Integration of membrane and nuclear estrogen receptor signaling.
  Journal
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 144:306-15 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.01.025
Reference
  Authors
Roepke TA, Qiu J, Bosch MA, Ronnekleiv OK, Kelly MJ
  Title
Cross-talk between membrane-initiated and nuclear-initiated oestrogen signalling in the hypothalamus.
  Journal
J Neuroendocrinol 21:263-70 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2009.01846.x
Reference
  Authors
McCarthy MM
  Title
The two faces of estradiol: effects on the developing brain.
  Journal
Neuroscientist 15:599-610 (2009)
DOI:10.1177/1073858409340924
Reference
  Authors
Kelly MJ, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Membrane-initiated estrogen signaling in hypothalamic neurons.
  Journal
Mol Cell Endocrinol 290:14-23 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2008.04.014
Reference
  Authors
Kelly MJ, Qiu J, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus.
  Journal
Vitam Horm 71:123-45 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/S0083-6729(05)71005-0
Reference
  Authors
Raz L, Khan MM, Mahesh VB, Vadlamudi RK, Brann DW
  Title
Rapid estrogen signaling in the brain.
  Journal
Neurosignals 16:140-53 (2008)
DOI:10.1159/000111559
Reference
  Authors
Malyala A, Kelly MJ, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Estrogen modulation of hypothalamic neurons: activation of multiple signaling pathways and gene expression changes.
  Journal
Steroids 70:397-406 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2005.03.004
Reference
  Authors
Qiu J, Bosch MA, Tobias SC, Grandy DK, Scanlan TS, Ronnekleiv OK, Kelly MJ
  Title
Rapid signaling of estrogen in hypothalamic neurons involves a novel G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor that activates protein kinase C.
  Journal
J Neurosci 23:9529-40 (2003)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-29-09529.2003
Reference
  Authors
Kelly MJ, Qiu J, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Estrogen modulation of G-protein-coupled receptor activation of potassium channels in the central nervous system.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1007:6-16 (2003)
DOI:10.1196/annals.1286.001
Reference
  Authors
Meyer MR, Haas E, Prossnitz ER, Barton M
  Title
Non-genomic regulation of vascular cell function and growth by estrogen.
  Journal
Mol Cell Endocrinol 308:9-16 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2009.03.009
Reference
  Authors
do Nascimento GR, Barros YV, Wells AK, Khalil RA
  Title
Research into Specific Modulators of Vascular Sex Hormone Receptors in the Management of Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease.
  Journal
Curr Hypertens Rev 5:283-306 (2009)
DOI:10.2174/157340209789587717
Reference
  Authors
Bjornstrom L, Sjoberg M
  Title
Mechanisms of estrogen receptor signaling: convergence of genomic and nongenomic actions on target genes.
  Journal
Mol Endocrinol 19:833-42 (2005)
DOI:10.1210/me.2004-0486
Reference
  Authors
Manavathi B, Kumar R
  Title
Steering estrogen signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus: two sides of the coin.
  Journal
J Cell Physiol 207:594-604 (2006)
DOI:10.1002/jcp.20551
Reference
  Authors
Prossnitz ER, Barton M
  Title
The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER in health and disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Endocrinol 7:715-26 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2011.122
Reference
  Authors
Meyer MR, Prossnitz ER, Barton M
  Title
The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 as a regulator of cardiovascular function.
  Journal
Vascul Pharmacol 55:17-25 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.vph.2011.06.003
Reference
  Authors
Maggiolini M, Picard D
  Title
The unfolding stories of GPR30, a new membrane-bound estrogen receptor.
  Journal
J Endocrinol 204:105-14 (2010)
DOI:10.1677/JOE-09-0242
Reference
  Authors
Prossnitz ER, Maggiolini M
  Title
Mechanisms of estrogen signaling and gene expression via GPR30.
  Journal
Mol Cell Endocrinol 308:32-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2009.03.026
Reference
  Authors
Kelly MJ, Qiu J, Wagner EJ, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Rapid effects of estrogen on G protein-coupled receptor activation of potassium channels in the central nervous system (CNS).
  Journal
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 83:187-93 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0960-0760(02)00249-2
Reference
PMID:9278514
  Authors
Paech K, Webb P, Kuiper GG, Nilsson S, Gustafsson J, Kushner PJ, Scanlan TS
  Title
Differential ligand activation of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta at AP1 sites.
  Journal
Science 277:1508-10 (1997)
DOI:10.1126/science.277.5331.1508
Reference
  Authors
Razandi M, Pedram A, Park ST, Levin ER
  Title
Proximal events in signaling by plasma membrane estrogen receptors.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:2701-12 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M205692200
Reference
  Authors
Roepke TA, Xue C, Bosch MA, Scanlan TS, Kelly MJ, Ronnekleiv OK
  Title
Genes associated with membrane-initiated signaling of estrogen and energy homeostasis.
  Journal
Endocrinology 149:6113-24 (2008)
DOI:10.1210/en.2008-0769
Reference
  Authors
Thomas C, Gustafsson JA
  Title
The different roles of ER subtypes in cancer biology and therapy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:597-608 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3093
Related
pathway
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ko04151  PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
ko04270  Vascular smooth muscle contraction
ko04727  GABAergic synapse
ko04913  Ovarian steroidogenesis
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