KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05111
ko05111                     Pathway                                

Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by process which involves the regulatory sRNAs CsrB, CsrC and CsrD and the RNA-binding protein CsrA, interfering with LuxO of the QS pathway. The second messenger cAMP acts as a repressor of biofilm formation. cAMP is generated by adenylate cyclase CyaA, and in complex with cAMP receptor protein (CRP), this nucleotide has been shown to upregulate HapR production through the positive regulation of the CAI-I synthase CqsA and the negative regulation of Fis. The second messenger c-di-GMP is a key signalling molecule controlling motility and biofilm matrix production. High cellular levels of c-di-GMP promote enhanced transcription of genes involved in biofilm formation, possibly by promoting VpsT-mediated transcriptional activation of vps genes.
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
ko05111  Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae

M00852  Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity signature, toxin coregulated pilus [PATH:ko05111]
K07173  S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase [EC:]
K10909  two-component system, autoinducer 2 sensor kinase/phosphatase LuxQ [EC: 3.1.3.-]
K10910  autoinducer 2-binding periplasmic protein LuxP
K10915  CAI-1 autoinducer synthase [EC:2.3.-.-]
K10916  two-component system, CAI-1 autoinducer sensor kinase/phosphatase CqsS [EC: 3.1.3.-]
K10911  two-component system, phosphorelay protein LuxU
K10912  two-component system, repressor protein LuxO
K15851  quorum regulatory RNA Qrr
K03666  host factor-I protein
K10917  PadR family transcriptional regulator, regulatory protein AphA
K10918  LysR family transcriptional regulator, transcriptional activator AphB
K20918  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, positive regulator of biofilm formation
K20919  sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulator, positive regulator of biofilm formation
K20945  tyrosine-protein phosphatase [EC:]
K01791  UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (non-hydrolysing) [EC:]
K02472  UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid dehydrogenase [EC:]
K00640  serine O-acetyltransferase [EC:]
K20921  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsD
K20946  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsE
K20947  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsF
K01912  phenylacetate-CoA ligase [EC:]
K20922  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsI
K20948  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsJ
K05946  N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphoundecaprenol N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosaminyltransferase [EC:]
K03606  putative colanic acid biosysnthesis UDP-glucose lipid carrier transferase
K20920  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsM
K20988  polysaccharide biosynthesis/export protein VpsN
K16554  polysaccharide biosynthesis transport protein
K20949  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsP
K20950  polysaccharide biosynthesis protein VpsQ
K02452  general secretion pathway protein C
K02453  general secretion pathway protein D
K02454  general secretion pathway protein E [EC:]
K02455  general secretion pathway protein F
K02456  general secretion pathway protein G
K02457  general secretion pathway protein H
K02458  general secretion pathway protein I
K02459  general secretion pathway protein J
K02460  general secretion pathway protein K
K02461  general secretion pathway protein L
K02462  general secretion pathway protein M
K02463  general secretion pathway protein N
K20951  extracellular matrix protein
K20952  rugosity and biofilm structure modulator C
K20953  rugosity and biofilm structure modulator A
K10920  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein P
K10919  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein H
K10921  cholera toxin transcriptional activator
K10922  transmembrane regulatory protein ToxS
K10923  AraC family transcriptional regulator, TCP pilus virulence regulatory protein
K10940  outer membrane protein OmpT
K08720  outer membrane protein OmpU
K10930  toxin coregulated pilin
K10931  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein B
K10932  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis outer membrane protein C
K10933  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein D
K10934  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein E
K10935  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein F
K10961  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein I
K10962  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein Q
K10963  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein R
K10964  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein S
K10965  toxin coregulated pilus biosynthesis protein T
K10936  accessory colonization factor AcfA
K10937  accessory colonization factor AcfB
K10938  accessory colonization factor AcfC
K10939  accessory colonization factor AcfD
K10928  cholera enterotoxin subunit A [EC:]
K10929  cholera enterotoxin subunit B
K10913  TetR/AcrR family transcriptional regulator, hemagglutinin/protease regulatory protein
K08604  vibriolysin [EC:]
K07678  two-component system, NarL family, sensor histidine kinase BarA [EC:]
K07689  two-component system, NarL family, invasion response regulator UvrY
K18515  small regulatory RNA CsrB
K03563  carbon storage regulator
K02777  sugar PTS system EIIA component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K02779  glucose PTS system EIICB or EIICBA component [EC:]
K05851  adenylate cyclase, class 1 [EC:]
K10914  CRP/FNR family transcriptional regulator, cyclic AMP receptor protein
K03557  Fis family transcriptional regulator, factor for inversion stimulation protein
K20954  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20955  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20956  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20957  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20958  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20959  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20960  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20961  diguanylate cyclase [EC:]
K20962  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K20963  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K13246  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K07181  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K20964  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K20965  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K20966  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K12276  MSHA biogenesis protein MshE
K10924  MSHA pilin protein MshA
K10925  MSHA pilin protein MshB
K10926  MSHA pilin protein MshC
K10927  MSHA pilin protein MshD
K10941  sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulator, flagellar regulatory protein
K03092  RNA polymerase sigma-54 factor
K03087  RNA polymerase nonessential primary-like sigma factor
K10942  two-component system, sensor histidine kinase FlrB [EC:]
K10943  two-component system, response regulator FlrC
K02405  RNA polymerase sigma factor FliA
C00031  D-Glucose
C00044  GTP
C00092  D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C16421  AI-2
C16463  3',5'-Cyclic diGMP
C16640  CAI-1
C18076  5'-Phosphoguanylyl(3'->5')guanosine
Teschler JK, Zamorano-Sanchez D, Utada AS, Warner CJ, Wong GC, Linington RG, Yildiz FH
Living in the matrix: assembly and control of Vibrio cholerae biofilms.
Nat Rev Microbiol 13:255-68 (2015)
Dang H, Lovell CR
Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 80:91-138 (2016)
Hengge R
Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:263-73 (2009)
Liang ZX
The expanding roles of c-di-GMP in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides and secondary metabolites.
Nat Prod Rep 32:663-83 (2015)
Sandkvist M, Michel LO, Hough LP, Morales VM, Bagdasarian M, Koomey M, DiRita VJ, Bagdasarian M
General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.
J Bacteriol 179:6994-7003 (1997)
Lenz DH, Miller MB, Zhu J, Kulkarni RV, Bassler BL
CsrA and three redundant small RNAs regulate quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae.
Mol Microbiol 58:1186-202 (2005)
Houot L, Watnick PI
A novel role for enzyme I of the Vibrio cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in regulation of growth in a biofilm.
J Bacteriol 190:311-20 (2008)
Liang W, Silva AJ, Benitez JA
The cyclic AMP receptor protein modulates colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae.
Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7482-7 (2007)
Lenz DH, Bassler BL
The small nucleoid protein Fis is involved in Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing.
Mol Microbiol 63:859-71 (2007)
ko02024  Quorum sensing
ko02040  Flagellar assembly
ko03070  Bacterial secretion system
ko05110  Vibrio cholerae infection

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