KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05206Help
ko05206                     Pathway                                

MicroRNAs in cancer
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or the inhibition of protein translation. Using high-throughput profiling, dysregulation of miRNAs has been widely observed in different stages of cancer. The upregulation (overexpression) of specific miRNAs could lead to the repression of tumor suppressor gene expression, and conversely the downregulation of specific miRNAs could result in an increase of oncogene expression; both these situations induce subsequent malignant effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis that lead to tumor growth and progress. The miRNA signatures of cancer observed in various studies differ significantly. These inconsistencies occur due to the differences in the study populations and methodologies used. This pathway map shows the summarized results from various studies in 9 cancers, each of which is presented in a review article.
09160 Human Diseases; 09161 Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05206  MicroRNAs in cancer

Ortholog table
H00013  Small cell lung cancer
H00014  Non-small cell lung cancer
H00017  Esophageal cancer
H00020  Colorectal cancer
H00022  Bladder cancer
H00024  Prostate cancer
H00027  Ovarian cancer
H00031  Breast cancer
H00042  Glioma
H00048  Hepatocellular carcinoma
K17002  microRNA 17
K17003  microRNA 18a
K17005  microRNA 19
K17006  microRNA 20a
K17008  microRNA 92a
K01110  phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [EC:]
K17010  microRNA 221
K17011  microRNA 222
K06624  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
K16863  microRNA 21
K16866  metalloproteinase inhibitor 3
K16980  microRNA let-7
K17397  microRNA let-7c
K07827  GTPase KRas
K02091  cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:]
K06645  M-phase inducer phosphatase 1 [EC:]
K05866  M-phase inducer phosphatase 2 [EC:]
K05867  M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 [EC:]
K09283  high mobility group AT-hook protein 2
K17396  microRNA 107
K16986  microRNA 15a
K16987  microRNA 15b
K16988  microRNA 16
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
K10151  G1/S-specific cyclin-D2
K06626  G1/S-specific cyclin-E1
K16978  microRNA 126
K04438  proto-oncogene C-crk
K16972  microRNA 1
K04702  proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 [EC:]
K05099  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Met [EC:]
K16995  microRNA 29a
K16996  microRNA 29b
K16997  microRNA 29c
K17398  DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A [EC:]
K17399  DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B [EC:]
K16970  microRNA 133a
K16971  microRNA 133b
K02539  myeloid leukemia cell differntiation protein MCL-1
K02163  apoptosis regulator BCL-W
K16974  microRNA 145
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:]
K05448  vascular endothelial growth factor A
K17017  microRNA 200c
K17018  microRNA 141
K13376  transforming growth factor beta-2
K17116  microRNA 183
K08007  villin 2 (ezrin)
K16993  microRNA 125a
K16994  microRNA 125b
K16865  programmed cell death protein 4
K17023  microRNA 143
K17131  microRNA 192
K17371  microRNA 194
K04498  E1A/CREB-binding protein [EC:]
K17167  microRNA 215
K17366  microRNA 28
K17110  microRNA 30a/d/e
K17111  microRNA 30b
K17040  microRNA 30c
K10373  tropomyosin 1
K17383  protein sprouty homolog 2
K02161  apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
K10139  serpin B5
K17009  microRNA 155
K16975  microRNA 203
K17150  microRNA 205
K09299  zinc finger homeobox protein 1/2
K17112  microRNA 27a
K17113  microRNA 27b
K08670  suppressor of tumorigenicity protein 14 [EC:]
K07410  cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily B polypeptide 1 [EC:]
K17183  microRNA 31
K17367  microRNA 99a
K17041  microRNA 100
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:]
K07204  regulatory associated protein of mTOR
K07436  vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase [EC:]
K05083  receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 [EC:]
K05084  receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 [EC:]
K06619  abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 1 [EC:]
K10149  tumor protein p63
K16976  microRNA 375
K17379  microRNA 602
K09850  Ras association domain-containing protein 1
K17393  microRNA 10b
K09295  homrobox protein Hox-D10
K08270  DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4
K17460  Bcl-2-modifying factor
K17042  microRNA 224
K05734  p21-activated kinase 4 [EC:]
K01403  matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) [EC:]
K17036  microRNA 363
K17378  microRNA 494
K17380  microRNA 615
K17381  microRNA 625
K17038  microRNA 25
K16982  microRNA 34a
K17114  microRNA 96
K16864  microRNA 10a
K17165  microRNA 23a
K17394  microRNA 23b
K17395  microRNA 23c
K17020  microRNA 122
K13863  solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter), member 1
K10145  cyclin G1
K00510  heme oxygenase 1 [EC:]
K17024  microRNA 150
K17001  microRNA 223
K04381  stathmin
K17132  microRNA 342
K17376  microRNA 423
K04692  signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
K04377  Myc proto-oncogene protein
K02187  caspase 3 [EC:]
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K17119  microRNA 199b
K17152  microRNA 324
K17137  microRNA 483
K16984  microRNA 26a
K16985  microRNA 26b
K17370  microRNA 152
K00558  DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 [EC:]
K17144  microRNA 135
K02085  adenomatosis polyposis coli protein
K16172  insulin receptor substrate 1
K04464  mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 [EC:]
K17015  microRNA 200a
K17016  microRNA 200b
K12886  heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K
K17461  reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs
K17126  microRNA 124
K17369  microRNA 137
K17130  microRNA 128
K06620  transcription factor E2F3
K17365  microRNA 7
K07187  insulin receptor substrate 2
K17372  microRNA 326
K02599  Notch 1
K20994  Notch 2
K20995  Notch 3
K20996  Notch 4
K11459  polycomb group RING finger protein 4
K17012  microRNA 146a
K07996  matrix metalloproteinase-16 (membrane-inserted) [EC:3.4.24.-]
K17025  microRNA 181a
K17026  microRNA 181b
K17027  microRNA 181c
K17028  microRNA 181d
K04728  ataxia telangiectasia mutated family protein [EC:]
K04694  suppressor of cytokine signaling 1
K17000  microRNA 373
K17175  microRNA 520
K06256  CD44 antigen
K16989  microRNA 103
K11592  endoribonuclease Dicer [EC:3.1.26.-]
K02329  frizzled 3
K06484  integrin alpha 5
K05762  radixin
K04513  Ras homolog gene family, member A
K17148  microRNA 193b
K01348  urokinase plasminogen activator [EC:]
K14021  Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K17442  zinc finger protein ZFPM2
K06493  integrin beta 3
K10577  ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 I
K17033  microRNA 335
K06252  tenascin
K16973  microRNA 206
K17172  microRNA 451
K05658  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 1 [EC:]
K17375  microRNA 345
K05665  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP), member 1
K17151  microRNA 214
K10605  breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein [EC:]
K17035  microRNA 106b
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K17178  microRNA 210
K16857  thrombospondin 1
K17391  insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1
K12035  tripartite motif-containing protein 71 [EC:]
K16977  microRNA 9
K02580  nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
K17118  microRNA 199a
K07209  inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta [EC:]
K11987  prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [EC:]
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:]
K04364  growth factor receptor-binding protein 2
K05094  fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [EC:]
K04445  ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5 [EC:]
K04451  tumor protein p53
K06643  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:]
K10127  protein Mdm4
K04363  platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [EC:]
K01116  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-1 [EC:]
K05859  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-2 [EC:]
K17129  microRNA 101
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:]
K17029  microRNA 195
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:]
K03099  son of sevenless
K06279  SHC-transforming protein 1
K04359  platelet-derived growth factor subunit A
K17368  microRNA 129
K17449  SHC-transforming protein 4
K17386  platelet-derived growth factor subunit B
K05089  platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta [EC:]
K06621  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
K17454  transcription factor E2F1
K09389  transcription factor E2F2
K17039  microRNA 32
K16341  Bcl-2-like protein 11
K12561  myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate
K04671  bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 [EC:]
K17377  microRNA 449a
K11430  histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 [EC:]
K01425  glutaminase [EC:]
K11411  NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 [EC:3.5.1.-]
K00312  wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3
K17373  microRNA 330
K17374  microRNA 331
K17390  sororin
K17387  kinesin family member 23
K17389  microRNA 520c
K04514  Rho-associated protein kinase 1 [EC:]
K18050  novel protein kinase C epsilon type [EC:]
K15379  solute carrier family 45, member 3
K07606  vimentin
Lee YS, Dutta A
MicroRNAs in cancer.
Annu Rev Pathol 4:199-227 (2009)
Babashah S, Soleimani M
The oncogenic and tumour suppressive roles of microRNAs in cancer and apoptosis.
Eur J Cancer 47:1127-37 (2011)
Garzon R, Calin GA, Croce CM
MicroRNAs in Cancer.
Annu Rev Med 60:167-79 (2009)
Chen PS, Su JL, Hung MC
Dysregulation of microRNAs in cancer.
J Biomed Sci 19:90 (2012)
Ling H, Zhang W, Calin GA
Principles of microRNA involvement in human cancers.
Chin J Cancer 30:739-48 (2011)
Iorio MV, Croce CM
MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review.
EMBO Mol Med 4:143-59 (2012)
Sayed D, Abdellatif M
MicroRNAs in development and disease.
Physiol Rev 91:827-87 (2011)
Wang Q, Wang S, Wang H, Li P, Ma Z
MicroRNAs: novel biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis, prediction and treatment.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 237:227-35 (2012)
Song JH, Meltzer SJ
MicroRNAs in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of gastroesophageal cancers.
Gastroenterology 143:35-47.e2 (2012)
Chu Y, Zhu H, Lv L, Zhou Y, Huo J
MiRNA s in oesophageal squamous cancer.
Neth J Med 71:69-75 (2013)
Kan T, Meltzer SJ
MicroRNAs in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:727-32 (2009)
Smith CM, Watson DI, Michael MZ, Hussey DJ
MicroRNAs, development of Barrett's esophagus, and progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol 16:531-7 (2010)
Song S, Ajani JA
The role of microRNAs in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:109-18 (2013)
Liu WH, Yeh SH, Chen PJ
Role of microRNAs in hepatitis B virus replication and pathogenesis.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1809:678-85 (2011)
Hrasovec S, Glavac D
MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.
Front Genet 3:180 (2012)
Liu H
MicroRNAs in breast cancer initiation and progression.
Cell Mol Life Sci 69:3587-99 (2012)
Li SD, Zhang JR, Wang YQ, Wan XP
The role of microRNAs in ovarian cancer initiation and progression.
J Cell Mol Med 14:2240-9 (2010)
Zabolotneva AA, Zhavoronkov A, Garazha AV, Roumiantsev SA, Buzdin AA
Characteristic patterns of microRNA expression in human bladder cancer.
Front Genet 3:310 (2012)
Saini S, Majid S, Dahiya R
Diet, microRNAs and prostate cancer.
Pharm Res 27:1014-26 (2010)
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