KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05223Help
Entry
ko05223                     Pathway                                

Name
Non-small cell lung cancer
Description
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heterogeneous group of cancers, consisting mainly of squamous cell (SCC), adeno (AC) and large-cell carcinoma. Molecular mechanisms altered in NSCLC include activation of oncogenes, such as K-RAS, EGFR and EML4-ALK, and inactivation of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, p16INK4a, RAR-beta, and RASSF1. Point mutations within the K-RAS gene inactivate GTPase activity and the p21-RAS protein continuously transmits growth signals to the nucleus. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR leads to a proliferative advantage. EML4-ALK fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation, which causes cell proliferation, invasion, and inhibition of apoptosis. Inactivating mutation of p53 can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The protein encoded by the p16INK4a  inhibits formation of CDK-cyclin-D complexes by competitive binding of CDK4 and CDK6. Loss of p16INK4a expression is a common feature of NSCLC. RAR-beta is a nuclear receptor that bears vitamin-A-dependent transcriptional activity. RASSF1A is able to form heterodimers with Nore-1, an RAS effector.Therefore loss of RASSF1A might shift the balance of RAS activity towards a growth-promoting effect.
Class
09160 Human Diseases; 09161 Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05223  Non-small cell lung cancer
ko05223

Ortholog table
Disease
H00014  Non-small cell lung cancer
Orthology
K01522  bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.29]
K08528  retinoic acid receptor beta
K08524  retinoid X receptor alpha
K08525  retinoid X receptor beta
K08526  retinoid X receptor gamma
K06621  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
K02089  cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K02091  cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
K06618  retinoblastoma-associated protein
K17454  transcription factor E2F1
K09389  transcription factor E2F2
K06620  transcription factor E2F3
K07827  GTPase KRas
K09850  Ras association domain-containing protein 1
K08015  Ras association domain-containing protein 5
K04411  serine/threonine kinase 4
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K06276  3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K02158  Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death
K04399  caspase 9 [EC:3.4.22.62]
K09408  forkhead box protein O3
K04357  epidermal growth factor
K08774  transforming growth factor, alpha
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05083  receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04364  growth factor receptor-binding protein 2
K03099  son of sevenless
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K08845  A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04365  B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K01116  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-1 [EC:3.1.4.11]
K05859  phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, gamma-2 [EC:3.1.4.11]
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04451  tumor protein p53
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K04402  growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
K02159  apoptosis regulator BAX
K14021  Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K10140  DNA damage-binding protein 2
K03511  DNA polymerase kappa [EC:2.7.7.7]
K15420  echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4
K05119  anaplastic lymphoma kinase [EC:2.7.10.1]
K11218  Janus kinase 3 [EC:2.7.10.2]
K04692  signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
K11223  signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A
K11224  signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00777  Retinoate
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C15493  9-cis-Retinoic acid
Reference
  Authors
Osada H, Takahashi T.
  Title
Genetic alterations of multiple tumor suppressors and oncogenes in the carcinogenesis and progression of lung cancer.
  Journal
Oncogene 21:7421-34 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1205802
Reference
  Authors
Yokota J, Nishioka M, Tani M, Kohno T.
  Title
Genetic alterations responsible for metastatic phenotypes of lung cancer cells.
  Journal
Clin Exp Metastasis 20:189-93 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Aviel-Ronen S, Blackhall FH, Shepherd FA, Tsao MS.
  Title
K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review.
  Journal
Clin Lung Cancer 8:30-8 (2006)
DOI:10.3816/CLC.2006.n.030
Reference
  Authors
Pfeifer GP, Dammann R.
  Title
Methylation of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in human tumors.
  Journal
Biochemistry (Mosc) 70:576-83 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Altucci L, Gronemeyer H.
  Title
The promise of retinoids to fight against cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 1:181-93 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35106036
Reference
  Authors
Virmani AK, Rathi A, Zochbauer-Muller S, Sacchi N, Fukuyama Y, Bryant D, Maitra A, Heda S, Fong KM, Thunnissen F, Minna JD, Gazdar AF.
  Title
Promoter methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-beta gene in lung carcinomas.
  Journal
J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1303-7 (2000)
DOI:10.1093/jnci/92.16.1303
Reference
  Authors
Hirsch FR, Scagliotti GV, Langer CJ, Varella-Garcia M, Franklin WA.
  Title
Epidermal growth factor family of receptors in preneoplasia and lung cancer: perspectives for targeted therapies.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 41 Suppl 1:S29-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0169-5002(03)00137-5
Reference
  Authors
Panani AD, Roussos C.
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of lung cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 239:1-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.06.030
Reference
  Authors
Mitsuuchi Y, Testa JR.
  Title
Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of lung cancer.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet 115:183-8 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.10692
Reference
  Authors
Breuer RH, Postmus PE, Smit EF.
  Title
Molecular pathology of non-small-cell lung cancer.
  Journal
Respiration 72:313-30 (2005)
DOI:10.1159/000085376
Reference
  Authors
Piyathilake CJ, Frost AR, Manne U, Weiss H, Bell WC, Heimburger DC, Grizzle WE.
  Title
Differential expression of growth factors in squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions of the lung.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 8:734-44 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Awaya H, Takeshima Y, Furonaka O, Kohno N, Inai K.
  Title
Gene amplification and protein expression of EGFR and HER2 by chromogenic in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  Journal
J Clin Pathol 58:1076-80 (2005)
DOI:10.1136/jcp.2004.025585
Reference
  Authors
Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, Takada S, Yamashita Y, Ishikawa S, Fujiwara S, Watanabe H, Kurashina K, Hatanaka H, Bando M, Ohno S, Ishikawa Y, Aburatani H, Niki T, Sohara Y, Sugiyama Y, Mano H
  Title
Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer.
  Journal
Nature 448:561-6 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nature05945
Reference
  Authors
Choi YL, Takeuchi K, Soda M, Inamura K, Togashi Y, Hatano S, Enomoto M, Hamada T, Haruta H, Watanabe H, Kurashina K, Hatanaka H, Ueno T, Takada S, Yamashita Y, Sugiyama Y, Ishikawa Y, Mano H
  Title
Identification of novel isoforms of the EML4-ALK transforming gene in non-small cell lung cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Res 68:4971-6 (2008)
DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6158
Reference
  Authors
Janne PA, Gray N, Settleman J
  Title
Factors underlying sensitivity of cancers to small-molecule kinase inhibitors.
  Journal
Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:709-23 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrd2871
Reference
  Authors
Roskoski R Jr
  Title
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK): structure, oncogenic activation, and pharmacological inhibition.
  Journal
Pharmacol Res 68:68-94 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2012.11.007
Reference
  Authors
Reungwetwattana T, Weroha SJ, Molina JR
  Title
Oncogenic pathways, molecularly targeted therapies, and highlighted clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  Journal
Clin Lung Cancer 13:252-66 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.cllc.2011.09.004
Reference
  Authors
Popat S, Gonzalez D, Min T, Swansbury J, Dainton M, Croud JG, Rice AJ, Nicholson AG
  Title
ALK translocation is associated with ALK immunoreactivity and extensive signet-ring morphology in primary lung adenocarcinoma.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 75:300-5 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.07.017
Reference
  Authors
Yoshida A, Tsuta K, Nakamura H, Kohno T, Takahashi F, Asamura H, Sekine I, Fukayama M, Shibata T, Furuta K, Tsuda H
  Title
Comprehensive histologic analysis of ALK-rearranged lung carcinomas.
  Journal
Am J Surg Pathol 35:1226-34 (2011)
DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3182233e06
Reference
  Authors
Shaozhang Z, Xiaomei L, Aiping Z, Jianbo H, Xiangqun S, Qitao Y
  Title
Detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer patients with clinical features associated with EGFR mutations.
  Journal
Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:925-32 (2012)
DOI:10.1002/gcc.21976
Reference
  Authors
Toyooka S, Mitsudomi T, Soh J, Aokage K, Yamane M, Oto T, Kiura K, Miyoshi S
  Title
Molecular oncology of lung cancer.
  Journal
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 59:527-37 (2011)
DOI:10.1007/s11748-010-0743-3
Reference
  Authors
Koudelakova V, Kneblova M, Trojanec R, Drabek J, Hajduch M
  Title
Non-small cell lung cancer--genetic predictors.
  Journal
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 157:125-36 (2013)
DOI:10.5507/bp.2013.034
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