KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05230Help
Entry
ko05230                     Pathway                                

Name
Central carbon metabolism in cancer
Description
Malignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamental differences in the central metabolic pathways operating in malignant tissue. He showed that cancer cells consume a large amount of glucose, maintain high rate of glycolysis and convert a majority of glucose into lactic acid even under normal oxygen concentrations (Warburg's Effects). More recently, it has been recognized that the 'Warburg effect' encompasses a similarly increased utilization of glutamine. From the intermediate molecules provided by enhanced glycolysis and glutaminolysis, cancer cells synthesize most of the macromolecules required for the duplication of their biomass and genome. These cancer-specific alterations represent a major consequence of genetic mutations and the ensuing changes of signalling pathways in cancer cells. Three transcription factors, c-MYC, HIF-1 and p53, are key regulators and coordinate regulation of cancer metabolism in different ways, and many other oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes cluster along the signaling pathways that regulate c-MYC, HIF-1 and p53.
Class
09160 Human Diseases; 09161 Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05230  Central carbon metabolism in cancer
ko05230

Ortholog table
Orthology
K07299  MFS transporter, SP family, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1
K07593  MFS transporter, SP family, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2
K12407  glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K00873  pyruvate kinase [EC:2.7.1.40]
K00161  pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00162  pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component beta subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K12077  pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 1 [EC:2.7.11.2]
K04451  tumor protein p53
K05616  solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5
K11413  NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 [EC:3.5.1.-]
K08180  MFS transporter, MCP family, solute carrier family 16 (monocarboxylic acid transporters), member 3
K11416  mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin 6 [EC:2.4.2.31]
K04377  Myc proto-oncogene protein
K08268  hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
K05091  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Kit [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05099  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Met [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05126  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Ret [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04361  epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05083  receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K03176  neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05101  neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04363  platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05089  platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04362  fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05093  fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05094  fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05092  fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K04366  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K01425  glutaminase [EC:3.5.1.2]
K00036  glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.363 1.1.1.49]
K00844  hexokinase [EC:2.7.1.1]
K00850  6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K01834  2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K14634  fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.46]
K01110  phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
K00922  phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha/beta/delta [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha/beta/delta
K04456  RAC serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K07203  serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [EC:2.7.11.1]
K13780  solute carrier family 7 (L-type amino acid transporter), member 5
Compound
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00025  L-Glutamate
C00026  2-Oxoglutarate
C00031  D-Glucose
C00036  Oxaloacetate
C00037  Glycine
C00041  L-Alanine
C00042  Succinate
C00049  L-Aspartate
C00062  L-Arginine
C00064  L-Glutamine
C00065  L-Serine
C00073  L-Methionine
C00074  Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00078  L-Tryptophan
C00079  L-Phenylalanine
C00082  L-Tyrosine
C00085  D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C00092  D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00122  Fumarate
C00123  L-Leucine
C00135  L-Histidine
C00148  L-Proline
C00149  (S)-Malate
C00152  L-Asparagine
C00158  Citrate
C00183  L-Valine
C00186  (S)-Lactate
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00311  Isocitrate
C00354  D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C00407  L-Isoleucine
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00665  beta-D-Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
C00704  O2.-
Reference
  Authors
Soga T
  Title
Cancer metabolism: key players in metabolic reprogramming.
  Journal
Cancer Sci 104:275-81 (2013)
DOI:10.1111/cas.12085
Reference
  Authors
Vander Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB
  Title
Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation.
  Journal
Science 324:1029-33 (2009)
DOI:10.1126/science.1160809
Reference
  Authors
Teicher BA, Linehan WM, Helman LJ
  Title
Targeting cancer metabolism.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 18:5537-45 (2012)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2587
Reference
  Authors
Levine AJ, Puzio-Kuter AM
  Title
The control of the metabolic switch in cancers by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
  Journal
Science 330:1340-4 (2010)
DOI:10.1126/science.1193494
Reference
  Authors
Amoedo ND, Valencia JP, Rodrigues MF, Galina A, Rumjanek FD
  Title
How does the metabolism of tumour cells differ from that of normal cells.
  Journal
Biosci Rep 33:e00080 (2013)
DOI:10.1042/BSR20130066
Reference
  Authors
Cairns RA, Harris IS, Mak TW
  Title
Regulation of cancer cell metabolism.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:85-95 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2981
Reference
  Authors
Munoz-Pinedo C, El Mjiyad N, Ricci JE
  Title
Cancer metabolism: current perspectives and future directions.
  Journal
Cell Death Dis 3:e248 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/cddis.2011.123
Reference
  Authors
Cairns RA, Harris I, McCracken S, Mak TW
  Title
Cancer cell metabolism.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 76:299-311 (2011)
DOI:10.1101/sqb.2011.76.012856
Reference
  Authors
Kroemer G, Pouyssegur J
  Title
Tumor cell metabolism: cancer's Achilles' heel.
  Journal
Cancer Cell 13:472-82 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2008.05.005
Reference
  Authors
DeBerardinis RJ, Lum JJ, Hatzivassiliou G, Thompson CB
  Title
The biology of cancer: metabolic reprogramming fuels cell growth and proliferation.
  Journal
Cell Metab 7:11-20 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.10.002
Reference
  Authors
Koppenol WH, Bounds PL, Dang CV
  Title
Otto Warburg's contributions to current concepts of cancer metabolism.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:325-37 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3038
Reference
  Authors
Fogg VC, Lanning NJ, Mackeigan JP
  Title
Mitochondria in cancer: at the crossroads of life and death.
  Journal
Chin J Cancer 30:526-39 (2011)
DOI:10.5732/cjc.011.10018
Reference
  Authors
Kim JW, Dang CV
  Title
Cancer's molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect.
  Journal
Cancer Res 66:8927-30 (2006)
DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1501
Reference
  Authors
Yeung SJ, Pan J, Lee MH
  Title
Roles of p53, MYC and HIF-1 in regulating glycolysis - the seventh hallmark of cancer.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:3981-99 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-008-8224-x
Reference
  Authors
Li B, Simon MC
  Title
Molecular Pathways: Targeting MYC-induced metabolic reprogramming and oncogenic stress in cancer.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 19:5835-41 (2013)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3629
Reference
  Authors
Shen L, Sun X, Fu Z, Yang G, Li J, Yao L
  Title
The fundamental role of the p53 pathway in tumor metabolism and its implication in tumor therapy.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 18:1561-7 (2012)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-3040
Reference
  Authors
Jones RG, Thompson CB
  Title
Tumor suppressors and cell metabolism: a recipe for cancer growth.
  Journal
Genes Dev 23:537-48 (2009)
DOI:10.1101/gad.1756509
Reference
  Authors
Maddocks OD, Vousden KH
  Title
Metabolic regulation by p53.
  Journal
J Mol Med (Berl) 89:237-45 (2011)
DOI:10.1007/s00109-011-0735-5
Reference
  Authors
Chen JQ, Russo J
  Title
Dysregulation of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and glutaminolysis by oncogenes and tumor suppressors in cancer cells.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1826:370-84 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.06.004
Reference
  Authors
Kaelin WG Jr, Thompson CB
  Title
Q&A: Cancer: clues from cell metabolism.
  Journal
Nature 465:562-4 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/465562a
Reference
  Authors
Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Vander Heiden MG, Kroemer G
  Title
Metabolic targets for cancer therapy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Drug Discov 12:829-46 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrd4145
Reference
  Authors
Phan LM, Yeung SC, Lee MH
  Title
Cancer metabolic reprogramming: importance, main features, and potentials for precise targeted anti-cancer therapies.
  Journal
Cancer Biol Med 11:1-19 (2014)
DOI:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014.01.001
Reference
  Authors
Icard P, Poulain L, Lincet H
  Title
Understanding the central role of citrate in the metabolism of cancer cells.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1825:111-6 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2011.10.007
Reference
  Authors
Daye D, Wellen KE
  Title
Metabolic reprogramming in cancer: unraveling the role of glutamine in tumorigenesis.
  Journal
Semin Cell Dev Biol 23:362-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2012.02.002
Reference
  Authors
Chiarugi A, Dolle C, Felici R, Ziegler M
  Title
The NAD metabolome--a key determinant of cancer cell biology.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 12:741-52 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3340
Reference
  Authors
Guarente L
  Title
The many faces of sirtuins: Sirtuins and the Warburg effect.
  Journal
Nat Med 20:24-5 (2014)
DOI:10.1038/nm.3438
Reference
  Authors
Fuchs BC, Bode BP
  Title
Amino acid transporters ASCT2 and LAT1 in cancer: partners in crime?
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 15:254-66 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2005.04.005
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