KEGG   PATHWAY: lav04971
Entry
lav04971                    Pathway                                

Name
Gastric acid secretion - Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant)
Description
Gastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections. The principal stimulants of acid secretion at the level of the parietal cell are histamine (paracrine), gastrin (hormonal), and acetycholine (ACh; neurocrine). Stimulation of acid secretion typically involves an initial elevation of intracellular calcium and cAMP, followed by activation of protein kinase cascades, which trigger the translocation of the proton pump, H+,K+-ATPase, from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical plasma membrane and thereby H+ secretion into the stomach lumen.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
Pathway map
lav04971  Gastric acid secretion
lav04971

Other DBs
GO: 0001696
Organism
Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant) [GN:lav]
Gene
100667215  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
100669301  GAST; gastrin [KO:K13768]
100668730  CCKBR; gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04195]
100656672  GNAQ; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04634]
100670617  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100672435  PLCB1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100668575  PLCB2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100663829  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100665537  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100672078  PRKCB; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100671733  PRKCG; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100662045  EZR; ezrin isoform X1 [KO:K08007]
100670743  ACTG1; actin, cytoplasmic 2 [KO:K05692]
100654618  ACTB; actin, cytoplasmic 1 [KO:K05692]
100665028  ITPR1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
100667845  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
100659666  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
100663507  CALM1; calmodulin-1 [KO:K02183]
100664679  CALM2; calmodulin-2 [KO:K02183]
100657612  calmodulin [KO:K02183]
100669885  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K02183]
100658962  CALML3; calmodulin-like protein 3 [KO:K02183]
100658208  calmodulin [KO:K02183]
104846071  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100653927  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100663321  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta isoform X2 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100658516  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100665634  MYLK4; myosin light chain kinase family member 4 [KO:K00907] [EC:2.7.11.18]
100656405  MYLK2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal/cardiac muscle [KO:K00907] [EC:2.7.11.18]
100677183  MYLK; myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle isoform X2 [KO:K00907] [EC:2.7.11.18]
100659681  HRH2; histamine H2 receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04150]
100655206  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04632]
100669226  neuroendocrine secretory protein 55-like [KO:K04632]
100671072  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100673570  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100674724  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100675525  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100670244  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653532  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653771  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100661616  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100663448  ADCY9; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100656123  SST; somatostatin [KO:K05237]
100660893  SSTR2; somatostatin receptor type 2 [KO:K04218]
100666344  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
100670234  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
100667957  GNAI3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
100656966  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100674245  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100670470  ATP4A; potassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1 [KO:K01542] [EC:7.2.2.19]
100663989  ATP4B; potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta [KO:K01543] [EC:7.2.2.19]
100670332  KCNE2; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 2 [KO:K04896]
100666129  KCNQ1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 [KO:K04926]
100656041  KCNJ1; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1 [KO:K04995]
100661939  KCNJ2; inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K04996]
100673497  KCNJ10; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10 [KO:K05003]
100667816  KCNJ15; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 15 [KO:K05008]
100662226  KCNJ16; inward rectifier potassium channel 16 [KO:K05009]
100662653  CFTR; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator [KO:K05031] [EC:5.6.1.6]
100654542  KCNK2; potassium channel subfamily K member 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04913]
100660189  KCNK10; potassium channel subfamily K member 10 [KO:K04920]
100668326  ATP1A3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100667801  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100674070  ATP1A2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100661428  ATP1A1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100655666  ATP1B3; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3 [KO:K01540]
100660792  ATP1B4; protein ATP1B4 isoform X2 [KO:K01540]
100676526  ATP1B1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 [KO:K01540]
100668753  ATP1B2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2 [KO:K01540]
104846349  SLC9A1; sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 [KO:K05742]
100668265  SLC9A4; sodium/hydrogen exchanger 4 [KO:K13961]
100662562  CA2; carbonic anhydrase 2 [KO:K18245] [EC:4.2.1.1]
100665497  SLC26A7; anion exchange transporter [KO:K13962]
100672425  SLC4A2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: anion exchange protein 2 [KO:K13855]
Compound
C00001  H2O
C00011  CO2
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00288  HCO3-
C00388  Histamine
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00698  Cl-
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01353  Carbonic acid
C01996  Acetylcholine
Reference
  Authors
Schubert ML, Peura DA
  Title
Control of gastric acid secretion in health and disease.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 134:1842-60 (2008)
DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2008.05.021
Reference
PMID:9307437
  Authors
Urushidani T, Forte JG
  Title
Signal transduction and activation of acid secretion in the parietal cell.
  Journal
J Membr Biol 159:99-111 (1997)
DOI:10.1007/s002329900274
Reference
  Authors
Yao X, Forte JG
  Title
Cell biology of acid secretion by the parietal cell.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 65:103-31 (2003)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.physiol.65.072302.114200
Reference
  Authors
Heitzmann D, Warth R
  Title
No potassium, no acid: K+ channels and gastric acid secretion.
  Journal
Physiology (Bethesda) 22:335-41 (2007)
DOI:10.1152/physiol.00016.2007
Reference
  Authors
Kopic S, Murek M, Geibel JP
  Title
Revisiting the parietal cell.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298:C1-C10 (2010)
DOI:10.1152/ajpcell.00478.2009
Reference
  Authors
Schubert ML
  Title
Gastric secretion.
  Journal
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 20:519-25 (2004)
DOI:10.1097/00001574-200411000-00003
Reference
  Authors
Konturek SJ, Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek JW, Pawlik WW
  Title
From nerves and hormones to bacteria in the stomach; Nobel prize for achievements in gastrology during last century.
  Journal
J Physiol Pharmacol 56:507-30 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Forte JG, Zhu L
  Title
Apical recycling of the gastric parietal cell H,K-ATPase.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 72:273-96 (2010)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021909-135744
Reference
  Authors
Szaszak M, Christian F, Rosenthal W, Klussmann E
  Title
Compartmentalized cAMP signalling in regulated exocytic processes in non-neuronal cells.
  Journal
Cell Signal 20:590-601 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.10.020
Reference
  Authors
Heitzmann D, Warth R
  Title
Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium channels in gastrointestinal epithelia.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 88:1119-82 (2008)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.00020.2007
Reference
  Authors
Heitzmann D, Grahammer F, von Hahn T, Schmitt-Graff A, Romeo E, Nitschke R, Gerlach U, Lang HJ, Verrey F, Barhanin J, Warth R
  Title
Heteromeric KCNE2/KCNQ1 potassium channels in the luminal membrane of gastric parietal cells.
  Journal
J Physiol 561:547-57 (2004)
DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.075168
Reference
  Authors
Seidler U, Song P, Xiao F, Riederer B, Bachmann O, Chen M
  Title
Recent advances in the molecular and functional characterization of acid/base and electrolyte transporters in the basolateral membranes of gastric and duodenal epithelial cells.
  Journal
Acta Physiol (Oxf) 201:3-20 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02107.x
Related
pathway
lav04020  Calcium signaling pathway
lav04530  Tight junction
lav04974  Protein digestion and absorption
KO pathway
ko04971   
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