KEGG   PATHWAY: lav05032
Entry
lav05032                    Pathway                                

Name
Morphine addiction - Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant)
Description
Morphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most important brain-reward circuit involves dopamine (DA) -containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain and their target areas in the limbic forebrain, in particular, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and frontal regions of cerebral cortex. Morphine can cause indirect excitation of VTA dopamine neurons by reducing inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABAergic neurons. The chronic use of morphine is characterized by adaptive changes in neurons and neuronal communication; such adaptations (e.g., 'superactivation' of adenylyl cyclase) must underlie altered behaviour associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome, as well as drug-induced craving and relapse to drug use.
Class
Human Diseases; Substance dependence
Pathway map
lav05032  Morphine addiction
lav05032

Other DBs
GO: 0043278
Organism
Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant) [GN:lav]
Gene
104845742  OPRM1; mu-type opioid receptor [KO:K04215]
100668498  DRD1; D(1A) dopamine receptor [KO:K04144]
100671072  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100673570  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100674724  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100675525  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100670244  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653532  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653771  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100661616  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100663448  ADCY9; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653936  SLC32A1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter [KO:K15015]
100668323  KCNJ3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 [KO:K04997]
100676455  KCNJ6; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K05000]
100655762  KCNJ5; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04999]
100655176  CACNA1A; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A [KO:K04344]
100660444  CACNA1B; voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B [KO:K04849]
100659390  GABRA6; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 [KO:K05175]
100659678  GABRA1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 [KO:K05175]
100673112  GABRA4; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 isoform X1 [KO:K05175]
100665743  GABRA3; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 [KO:K05175]
100662419  GABRA5; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 [KO:K05175]
100666647  GABRA2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 [KO:K05175]
100658920  GABRB2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05181]
100673796  GABRB1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K05181]
100662142  GABRB3; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05181]
100659961  GABRG2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05186]
100666363  GABRG1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 [KO:K05186]
100662697  GABRG3; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 [KO:K05186]
100676800  GABRD; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta [KO:K05184]
100670286  GABRE; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon [KO:K05185]
100666025  GABRQ; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta [KO:K05192]
100663560  GABRP; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi [KO:K05189]
100670099  GABRR2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2 [KO:K05190]
100670389  GABRR1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1 isoform X2 [KO:K05190]
100665222  GABRR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3 [KO:K05190]
100657108  GABBR1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1 [KO:K04615]
100657997  GABBR2; gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 [KO:K04615]
100666344  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
100670234  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
100667957  GNAI3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
100658419  GNAO1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha [KO:K04534]
100673391  GNB1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
100677127  GNB2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 [KO:K04537]
100674807  GNB3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 [KO:K07825]
100669106  GNB4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 [KO:K04538]
100674665  GNB5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 isoform X1 [KO:K04539]
100668996  GNG2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 isoform X2 [KO:K07826]
100676083  GNG3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 [KO:K04540]
100664179  GNG4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 [KO:K04541]
100656403  GNG5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 [KO:K04542]
100655407  GNG7; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 [KO:K04543]
100662559  GNG10; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 [KO:K04545]
111749727  GNG11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 [KO:K04546]
111751488  GNG14; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-14 [KO:K04347]
111750996  GNG12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
100675882  GNG13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 [KO:K04547]
111749728  GNGT1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 [KO:K04548]
111751775  GNGT2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 [KO:K04549]
100655206  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04632]
100669226  neuroendocrine secretory protein 55-like [KO:K04632]
100666578  GRK3; beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K00910] [EC:2.7.11.15]
100671884  GRK2; beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K00910] [EC:2.7.11.15]
100659746  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4-like [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
100663377  GRK5; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
100663381  GRK6; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
100670615  GRK4; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
100665736  ARRB1; beta-arrestin-1 isoform X6 [KO:K04439]
100660311  ARRB2; beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1 [KO:K04439]
100665537  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100672078  PRKCB; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100671733  PRKCG; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100656966  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100674245  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100677239  PDE1B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1B isoform X2 [KO:K13755] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100674025  PDE1A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1A isoform X1 [KO:K13755] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100674033  PDE1C; calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C isoform X1 [KO:K13755] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100664597  PDE2A; cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase [KO:K18283] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100656270  PDE3A; cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase A [KO:K19021] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100660871  PDE3B; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase B [KO:K13296] [EC:3.1.4.17]
100656573  PDE4D; cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D isoform X2 [KO:K13293] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100667499  PDE4B; cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B [KO:K13293] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100671572  PDE4C; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4C [KO:K13293] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100671668  PDE4A; cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A [KO:K13293] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100667448  PDE7B; cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7B isoform X2 [KO:K18436] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100673758  PDE7A; high affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7A isoform X1 [KO:K18436] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100670699  PDE8B; high affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8B [KO:K18437] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100658501  PDE8A; high affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8A isoform X3 [KO:K18437] [EC:3.1.4.53]
100666579  PDE10A; cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10A [KO:K18438] [EC:3.1.4.17 3.1.4.35]
100676113  PDE11A; dual 3',5'-cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A [KO:K13298] [EC:3.1.4.17 3.1.4.35]
100676506  ADORA1; adenosine receptor A1 isoform X1 [KO:K04265]
Compound
C00020  AMP
C00076  Calcium cation
C00212  Adenosine
C00238  Potassium cation
C00334  4-Aminobutanoate
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00698  Cl-
C03758  Dopamine
D00842  Morphine sulfate (USP)
D02271  Morphine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17)
D08233  Morphine (BAN)
D08234  Morphine tartrate
Reference
  Authors
Bailey CP, Connor M
  Title
Opioids: cellular mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:60-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2004.08.012
Reference
  Authors
Williams JT, Christie MJ, Manzoni O
  Title
Cellular and synaptic adaptations mediating opioid dependence.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 81:299-343 (2001)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.299
Reference
  Authors
Gintzler AR, Chakrabarti S
  Title
Post-opioid receptor adaptations to chronic morphine; altered functionality and associations of signaling molecules.
  Journal
Life Sci 79:717-22 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.02.016
Reference
PMID:8785060
  Authors
Bonci A, Williams JT
  Title
A common mechanism mediates long-term changes in synaptic transmission after chronic cocaine and morphine.
  Journal
Neuron 16:631-9 (1996)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80082-3
Reference
  Authors
Liu JG, Anand KJ
  Title
Protein kinases modulate the cellular adaptations associated with opioid tolerance and dependence.
  Journal
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 38:1-19 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00057-1
Reference
  Authors
Shoji Y, Delfs J, Williams JT
  Title
Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal.
  Journal
J Neurosci 19:2347-55 (1999)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-06-02347.1999
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Y, Chen Q, Yu LC
  Title
Morphine: a protective or destructive role in neurons?
  Journal
Neuroscientist 14:561-70 (2008)
DOI:10.1177/1073858408314434
Reference
  Authors
Tso PH, Wong YH
  Title
Molecular basis of opioid dependence: role of signal regulation by G-proteins.
  Journal
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 30:307-16 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1681.2003.03835.x
Reference
PMID:1346804
  Authors
Johnson SW, North RA
  Title
Opioids excite dopamine neurons by hyperpolarization of local interneurons.
  Journal
J Neurosci 12:483-8 (1992)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.12-02-00483.1992
Reference
  Authors
Madhavan A, Bonci A, Whistler JL
  Title
Opioid-Induced GABA potentiation after chronic morphine attenuates the rewarding effects of opioids in the ventral tegmental area.
  Journal
J Neurosci 30:14029-35 (2010)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3366-10.2010
Reference
PMID:8987801
  Authors
Bonci A, Williams JT
  Title
Increased probability of GABA release during withdrawal from morphine.
  Journal
J Neurosci 17:796-803 (1997)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.17-02-00796.1997
Reference
  Authors
Morikawa H, Paladini CA
  Title
Dynamic regulation of midbrain dopamine neuron activity: intrinsic, synaptic, and plasticity mechanisms.
  Journal
Neuroscience 198:95-111 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.023
Reference
  Authors
Xi ZX, Stein EA
  Title
GABAergic mechanisms of opiate reinforcement .
  Journal
Alcohol Alcohol 37:485-94 (2002)
DOI:10.1093/alcalc/37.5.485
Reference
PMID:8096779
  Authors
Kalivas PW
  Title
Neurotransmitter regulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.
  Journal
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 18:75-113 (1993)
DOI:10.1016/0165-0173(93)90008-N
Reference
  Authors
Jalabert M, Bourdy R, Courtin J, Veinante P, Manzoni OJ, Barrot M, Georges F
  Title
Neuronal circuits underlying acute morphine action on dopamine neurons.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16446-50 (2011)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1105418108
Reference
  Authors
Chakrabarti S, Gintzler AR
  Title
Phosphorylation of Gbeta is augmented by chronic morphine and enhances Gbetagamma stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity.
  Journal
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 119:144-51 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.09.002
Reference
  Authors
Ferrer-Alcon M, La Harpe R, Garcia-Sevilla JA
  Title
Decreased immunodensities of micro-opioid receptors, receptor kinases GRK 2/6 and beta-arrestin-2 in postmortem brains of opiate addicts.
  Journal
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 121:114-22 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.11.009
Related
pathway
lav04727  GABAergic synapse
lav04728  Dopaminergic synapse
KO pathway
ko05032   
LinkDB

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