KEGG   PATHWAY: map04144
Entry
map04144                    Pathway                                

Name
Endocytosis
Description
Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins entering through clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) have sequences in their cytoplasmic domains that bind to the APs (adaptor-related protein complexes) and enable their rapid removal from the PM. In addition to APs and clathrin, there are numerous accessory proteins including dynamin. Depending on the various proteins that enter the endosome membrane, these cargoes are sorted to distinct destinations. Some cargoes, such as nutrient receptors, are recycled back to the PM. Ubiquitylated membrane proteins, such as activated growth-factor receptors, are sorted into intraluminal vesicles and eventually end up in the lysosome lumen via multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). There are distinct mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) depending upon the cargo and the cell type.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
Pathway map
map04144  Endocytosis
map04144

Disease
H00078  Frontotemporal lobar degeneration
H00155  Familial hypercholesterolemia
H00265  Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy
H00266  Hereditary spastic paraplegia
H00567  Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C
H00593  Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy
H00642  Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome
H00700  Centronuclear myopathy
H00800  Loeys-Dietz syndrome
H01232  Syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease
H01295  Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport deficiency
H01383  Hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa
H01523  Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
H01918  Familial autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
H02179  Rippling muscle disease
H02181  Idiopathic hyperCKemia
H02182  Distal myopathy, Tateyama type
H02190  CBL syndrome
Other DBs
GO: 0006897
Reference
  Authors
Acconcia F, Sigismund S, Polo S
  Title
Ubiquitin in trafficking: the network at work.
  Journal
Exp Cell Res 315:1610-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.10.014
Reference
  Authors
Donaldson JG, Porat-Shliom N, Cohen LA
  Title
Clathrin-independent endocytosis: a unique platform for cell signaling and PM remodeling.
  Journal
Cell Signal 21:1-6 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.06.020
Reference
  Authors
Sorkin A
  Title
Cargo recognition during clathrin-mediated endocytosis: a team effort.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 16:392-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2004.06.001
Reference
  Authors
Raiborg C, Stenmark H
  Title
The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins.
  Journal
Nature 458:445-52 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nature07961
Reference
  Authors
Scita G, Di Fiore PP
  Title
The endocytic matrix.
  Journal
Nature 463:464-73 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/nature08910
Reference
  Authors
Le Roy C, Wrana JL
  Title
Clathrin- and non-clathrin-mediated endocytic regulation of cell signalling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:112-26 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1571
Reference
  Authors
Jovic M, Sharma M, Rahajeng J, Caplan S
  Title
The early endosome: a busy sorting station for proteins at the crossroads.
  Journal
Histol Histopathol 25:99-112 (2010)
DOI:10.14670/HH-25.99
Reference
  Authors
Pietiainen VM, Marjomaki V, Heino J, Hyypia T
  Title
Viral entry, lipid rafts and caveosomes.
  Journal
Ann Med 37:394-403 (2005)
DOI:10.1080/07853890510011976
Reference
  Authors
Grant BD, Donaldson JG
  Title
Pathways and mechanisms of endocytic recycling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10:597-608 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrm2755
Reference
  Authors
Cullen PJ, Korswagen HC
  Title
Sorting nexins provide diversity for retromer-dependent trafficking events.
  Journal
Nat Cell Biol 14:29-37 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/ncb2374
Related
pathway
map04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
map04070  Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
map04130  SNARE interactions in vesicular transport
map04142  Lysosome
map04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
KO pathway
ko04144   
LinkDB

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