KEGG   PATHWAY: mna04610
mna04610                    Pathway                                

Complement and coagulation cascades - Miniopterus natalensis
The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these pathways generate a crucial enzymatic activity that, in turn, generates the effector molecules of complement. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. Blood coagulation is another series of proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity. The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.
Organismal Systems; Immune system
Pathway map
mna04610  Complement and coagulation cascades

Miniopterus natalensis [GN:mna]
107534673  F3; tissue factor [KO:K03901]
107536944  F7; coagulation factor VII [KO:K01320] [EC:]
107536945  F10; coagulation factor X [KO:K01314] [EC:]
107529057  F5; coagulation factor V [KO:K03902]
107530315  F2; prothrombin isoform X1 [KO:K01313] [EC:]
107529736  F12; coagulation factor XII [KO:K01328] [EC:]
107534053  F11; coagulation factor XI [KO:K01323] [EC:]
107532746  F9; coagulation factor IX isoform X1 [KO:K01321] [EC:]
107544091  VWF; von Willebrand factor [KO:K03900]
107540216  F8; coagulation factor VIII isoform X1 [KO:K03899]
107536268  THBD; thrombomodulin [KO:K03907]
107537208  PROCR; endothelial protein C receptor [KO:K06557]
107528567  PROC; vitamin K-dependent protein C [KO:K01344] [EC:]
107531201  F2R; proteinase-activated receptor 1 [KO:K03914]
107531212  F2RL2; proteinase-activated receptor 3 [KO:K04235]
107534297  F2RL3; proteinase-activated receptor 4 [KO:K04236]
107543532  F13A1; coagulation factor XIII A chain [KO:K03917] [EC:]
107540237  F13B; coagulation factor XIII B chain [KO:K03906]
107542259  CPB2; carboxypeptidase B2 [KO:K01300] [EC:]
107525606  FGA; fibrinogen alpha chain [KO:K03903]
107525621  FGB; fibrinogen beta chain isoform X1 [KO:K03904]
107525605  FGG; fibrinogen gamma chain [KO:K03905]
107534033  KLKB1; plasma kallikrein [KO:K01324] [EC:]
107527424  KNG1; kininogen-1 isoform X1 [KO:K03898]
107528072  BDKRB1; B1 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03915]
107528081  BDKRB2; B2 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03916]
107535735  PLG; plasminogen [KO:K01315] [EC:]
107524072  TFPI; tissue factor pathway inhibitor [KO:K03909]
107543846  SERPINC1; antithrombin-III [KO:K03911]
107530443  SERPIND1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: heparin cofactor 2 [KO:K03912]
107536665  SERPINA5; plasma serine protease inhibitor [KO:K03913]
107524603  PROS1; vitamin K-dependent protein S [KO:K03908]
107526505  SERPINE1; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [KO:K03982]
107545420  SERPINB2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 [KO:K19821]
107523945  PLAT; tissue-type plasminogen activator [KO:K01343] [EC:]
107545793  PLAU; urokinase-type plasminogen activator [KO:K01348] [EC:]
107542229  PLAUR; urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor [KO:K03985]
107536660  alpha-1-antitrypsin-like [KO:K03984]
107536661  alpha-1-antiproteinase 2-like [KO:K03984]
107535647  SERPINF2; alpha-2-antiplasmin [KO:K03983]
107544093  alpha-2-macroglobulin-like [KO:K03910]
107538978  CFB; complement factor B [KO:K01335] [EC:]
107538545  CFD; complement factor D [KO:K01334] [EC:]
107525753  C3; complement C3 [KO:K03990]
107537619  C5; complement C5 [KO:K03994]
107545944  C6; complement component C6 [KO:K03995]
107545649  C7; complement component C7 isoform X1 [KO:K03996]
107530646  C8A; complement component C8 alpha chain [KO:K03997]
107530647  C8B; complement component C8 beta chain [KO:K03998]
107536182  C8G; complement component C8 gamma chain isoform X1 [KO:K03999]
107545692  C9; complement component C9 [KO:K04000]
107538383  C1QA; complement C1q subcomponent subunit A [KO:K03986]
107538377  C1QB; complement C1q subcomponent subunit B [KO:K03987]
107538381  C1QC; complement C1q subcomponent subunit C [KO:K03988]
107544003  C1R; complement C1r subcomponent isoform X1 [KO:K01330] [EC:]
107544114  C1S; complement C1s subcomponent [KO:K01331] [EC:]
107523860  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mannose-binding protein A-like [KO:K03991]
107543287  MBL2; mannose-binding protein C [KO:K03991]
107527305  MASP1; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03992] [EC:3.4.21.-]
107540993  MASP2; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 [KO:K03993] [EC:]
107538982  C2; complement C2 [KO:K01332] [EC:]
107538990  complement C4-B-like isoform X1 [KO:K03989]
107544017  C3AR1; C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor [KO:K04009]
107534911  VSIG4; V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K19822]
107543130  CR1; complement receptor type 1 [KO:K04011]
107540812  ITGAM; integrin alpha-M [KO:K06461]
107543669  ITGB2; integrin beta-2 [KO:K06464]
107540803  integrin alpha-X-like [KO:K06462]
107540051  C5AR1; C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1 [KO:K04010]
107540245  complement factor H-like isoform X1 [KO:K04004]
107534378  CFI; complement factor I [KO:K01333] [EC:]
107527711  SERPING1; plasma protease C1 inhibitor [KO:K04001]
107543131  CD55; complement decay-accelerating factor [KO:K04006]
107545464  membrane cofactor protein-like isoform X1 [KO:K04007]
107543711  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
107543712  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
107532937  CD46; membrane cofactor protein isoform X1 [KO:K04007]
107539517  C4BPA; C4b-binding protein alpha chain [KO:K04002]
107539505  C4BPB; C4b-binding protein beta chain [KO:K04003]
107531968  CD59; CD59 glycoprotein [KO:K04008]
107538583  CLU; clusterin [KO:K17252]
107528756  VTN; vitronectin [KO:K06251]
C00290  Fibrin
Bajic G, Degn SE, Thiel S, Andersen GR
Complement activation, regulation, and molecular basis for complement-related diseases.
EMBO J 34:2735-57 (2015)
Mathern DR, Heeger PS
Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1636-50 (2015)
Merle NS, Church SE, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Roumenina LT
Complement System Part I - Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Regulation.
Front Immunol 6:262 (2015)
Oikonomopoulou K, Ricklin D, Ward PA, Lambris JD
Interactions between coagulation and complement--their role in inflammation.
Semin Immunopathol 34:151-65 (2012)
Kurosawa S, Stearns-Kurosawa DJ
Complement, thrombotic microangiopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
J Intensive Care 2:65 (2014)
Hillmeister P, Persson PB
The Kallikrein-Kinin system.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) 206:215-9 (2012)
Rau JC, Beaulieu LM, Huntington JA, Church FC
Serpins in thrombosis, hemostasis and fibrinolysis.
J Thromb Haemost 5 Suppl 1:102-15 (2007)
Crooks MG, Hart SP
Coagulation and anticoagulation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Eur Respir Rev 24:392-9 (2015)
Christiaans SC, Wagener BM, Esmon CT, Pittet JF
Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 305:L455-66 (2013)
Alberelli MA, De Candia E
Functional role of protease activated receptors in vascular biology.
Vascul Pharmacol 62:72-81 (2014)
Smith HW, Marshall CJ
Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 11:23-36 (2010)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: pathophysiological mechanisms.
J Immunol 190:3831-8 (2013)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: therapeutic interventions.
J Immunol 190:3839-47 (2013)
Loof TG, Deicke C, Medina E
The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:128 (2014)
Jozsi M, Tortajada A, Uzonyi B, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Rodriguez de Cordoba S
Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.
Trends Immunol 36:374-84 (2015)
mna04611  Platelet activation
mna04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
mna04750  Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels
KO pathway

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