KEGG   PATHWAY: mna05320
Entry
mna05320                    Pathway                                

Name
Autoimmune thyroid disease - Miniopterus natalensis
Description
The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in serum and varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction. During HT, self-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th) recruit B cells and CD8+ T cells (CTL) into the thyroid. Disease progression leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Both autoantibodies and thyroid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proposed to be responsible for autoimmune thyrocyte depletion. In GD, the TSH-R is the most important autoantigen. Antibodies directed against it mimic the effects of the hormone on thyroid cells, TSH, stimulating autonomous production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine and causing hyperthyroidism. The presence of TSH-R-blocking antibodies that bind the TSH receptor in a similar fashion to the antibodies in patients with Grave's disease but that block rather than activate the receptor explains some cases of atrophic hypothyroidism.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune disease
Pathway map
mna05320  Autoimmune thyroid disease
mna05320

Organism
Miniopterus natalensis [GN:mna]
Gene
107545174  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
107536419  DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain [KO:K06752]
107544122  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain [KO:K06752]
107542667  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain [KO:K06752]
107542672  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM alpha chain isoform X1 [KO:K06752]
107542674  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain [KO:K06752]
107545091  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
107545092  SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain-like [KO:K06752]
107524834  CTLA4; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K06538]
107526670  TPO; thyroid peroxidase [KO:K00431] [EC:1.11.1.8]
107539491  TG; thyroglobulin [KO:K10809]
107531685  uncharacterized protein LOC107531685 [KO:K10784]
107527336  CD80; T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80 [KO:K05412]
107527343  CD86; T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86 [KO:K05413]
107524832  CD28; T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 [KO:K06470]
107529760  IL2; interleukin-2 [KO:K05429]
107538488  patr class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
107538961  saoe class I histocompatibility antigen, A alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
107525813  saoe class I histocompatibility antigen, A alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
107546126  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: BOLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain BL3-6-like [KO:K06751]
107546127  class I histocompatibility antigen, Gogo-C*0101/C*0102 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
107528441  H-2 class I histocompatibility antigen, Q10 alpha chain-like isoform X1 [KO:K06751]
107543787  FASLG; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6 [KO:K04389]
107543257  FAS; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 [KO:K04390]
107526074  PRF1; perforin-1 [KO:K07818]
107544835  granzyme B-like [KO:K01353] [EC:3.4.21.79]
107544836  granzyme H-like [KO:K01353] [EC:3.4.21.79]
107539933  CD40LG; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
107530873  CD40; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5 isoform X1 [KO:K03160]
107525027  IL4; interleukin-4 [KO:K05430]
107525025  IL5; interleukin-5 [KO:K05428]
107539442  IL10; interleukin-10 [KO:K05443]
107542654  TSHR; thyrotropin receptor [KO:K04249]
107532807  CGA; glycoprotein hormones alpha chain [KO:K08522]
107545279  TSHB; thyrotropin subunit beta [KO:K05251]
Compound
C01382  Iodine
C01829  Thyroxine
C02465  Triiodothyronine
D00636  Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP17/USP)
Reference
  Authors
Fountoulakis S, Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
On the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease: a unifying hypothesis.
  Journal
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:397-409 (2004)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2004.01978.x
Reference
  Authors
Chistiakov DA.
  Title
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  Journal
J Autoimmune Dis 2:1 (2005)
DOI:10.1186/1740-2557-2-1
Reference
PMID:9534029
  Authors
McIver B, Morris JC.
  Title
The pathogenesis of Graves' disease.
  Journal
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:73-89 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70299-1
Reference
  Authors
Stassi G, De Maria R.
  Title
Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:195-204 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nri750
Reference
  Authors
Collins J, Gough S.
  Title
Autoimmunity in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29 Suppl 2:S417-24 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-0848-8
Reference
  Authors
Ruwhof C, Drexhage HA.
  Title
Iodine and thyroid autoimmune disease in animal models.
  Journal
Thyroid 11:427-36 (2001)
DOI:10.1089/105072501300176381
Reference
  Authors
Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
The role of stress in the clinical expression of thyroid autoimmunity.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:382-95 (2006)
DOI:10.1196/annals.1366.015
Reference
  Authors
Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM.
  Title
The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 150:605-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1530/eje.0.1500605
Reference
  Authors
Kopp P.
  Title
The TSH receptor and its role in thyroid disease.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 58:1301-22 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/PL00000941
Related
pathway
mna04210  Apoptosis
mna04514  Cell adhesion molecules
mna04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
mna04612  Antigen processing and presentation
mna04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
mna04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
mna04918  Thyroid hormone synthesis
KO pathway
ko05320   
LinkDB

DBGET integrated database retrieval system