KEGG   PATHWAY: ngi05216
Entry
ngi05216                    Pathway                                

Name
Thyroid cancer - Nannospalax galili (Upper Galilee mountains blind mole rat)
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells. Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
ngi05216  Thyroid cancer
ngi05216

Organism
Nannospalax galili (Upper Galilee mountains blind mole rat) [GN:ngi]
Gene
103733801  Ret; ret proto-oncogene [KO:K05126] [EC:2.7.10.1]
103746557  Ccdc6; coiled-coil domain containing 6 [KO:K09288]
103735006  Ncoa4; nuclear receptor coactivator 4 [KO:K09289]
103750263  Ntrk1; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K03176] [EC:2.7.10.1]
103751563  Tpm3; tropomyosin 3 [KO:K09290]
103726654  Tpr; translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein [KO:K09291]
103746345  Tfg; TRK-fused gene [KO:K09292]
103751075  Hras; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
103734938  Nras; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
103736717  Kras; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
103726107  Braf; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
103736801  Map2k1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
103737276  Map2k2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
103741442  Mapk1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
103726390  Mapk3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
103750879  Pax8; paired box 8 [KO:K09293]
103751484  Pparg; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma [KO:K08530]
103742823  Rxra; retinoid X receptor alpha [KO:K08524]
103739713  Rxrb; retinoid X receptor beta [KO:K08525]
103746119  Rxrg; retinoid X receptor gamma [KO:K08526]
103752115  Tp53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
103739652  Cdkn1a; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
103737285  Gadd45b; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
103743354  Gadd45a; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
103751225  Gadd45g; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma [KO:K04402]
103743639  Bax; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
103739733  Bak1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
103742505  Ddb2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
103736569  Polk; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
103734864  Cdh1; cadherin 1 [KO:K05689]
103747127  Ctnnb1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
103729786  Tcf7; transcription factor 7 (T-cell specific, HMG-box) [KO:K02620]
103739783  Tcf7l1; transcription factor 7 like 1 [KO:K04490]
103731749  Tcf7l2; transcription factor 7 like 2 [KO:K04491]
103742515  Lef1; lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 [KO:K04492]
103743920  Myc; v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04377]
103751498  Ccnd1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
Reference
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
  Authors
Chiloeches A, Marais R.
  Title
Is BRAF the Achilles' Heel of thyroid cancer?
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 12:1661-4 (2006)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0051
Reference
  Authors
Reddi HV, McIver B, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL
  Title
The paired box-8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma oncogene in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  Journal
Endocrinology 148:932-5 (2007)
DOI:10.1210/en.2006-0926
Reference
  Authors
Santoro M, Melillo RM, Fusco A.
  Title
RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 155:645-653 (2006)
DOI:10.1530/eje.1.02289
Reference
  Authors
Pierotti MA, Greco A.
  Title
Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1/NGF receptor.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 232:90-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.07.043
Reference
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
  Authors
Williams D.
  Title
Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:543-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc845
Related
pathway
ngi03320  PPAR signaling pathway
ngi04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ngi04115  p53 signaling pathway
ngi04310  Wnt signaling pathway
ngi04520  Adherens junction
KO pathway
ko05216   
LinkDB

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