KEGG   PATHWAY: aml05216
Entry
aml05216                    Pathway                                

Name
Thyroid cancer - Ailuropoda melanoleuca (giant panda)
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells. Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
aml05216  Thyroid cancer
aml05216

Organism
Ailuropoda melanoleuca (giant panda) [GN:aml]
Gene
100467317  RET; proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret isoform X1 [KO:K05126] [EC:2.7.10.1]
100476794  CCDC6; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: coiled-coil domain-containing protein 6 [KO:K09288]
100474916  NCOA4; nuclear receptor coactivator 4 isoform X1 [KO:K09289]
100482767  TPM3; tropomyosin alpha-3 chain isoform X7 [KO:K09290]
100480868  TPR; nucleoprotein TPR isoform X5 [KO:K09291]
100466561  TFG; protein TFG isoform X1 [KO:K09292]
100473836  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform X1 [KO:K02833]
100464196  NRAS; GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
100483919  KRAS; GTPase KRas isoform X1 [KO:K07827]
100469346  BRAF; serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf isoform X1 [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
100478039  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
100465700  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
100470035  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
100472388  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
100480115  paired box protein Pax-8 [KO:K09293]
100482938  PPARG; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform X1 [KO:K08530]
100479839  RXRA; retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha [KO:K08524]
100475696  RXRB; retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta isoform X2 [KO:K08525]
100475450  RXRG; retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma isoform X1 [KO:K08526]
100468516  TP53; cellular tumor antigen p53 [KO:K04451]
100484923  CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 [KO:K06625]
100477654  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04402]
100482871  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 beta [KO:K04402]
100470600  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 gamma [KO:K04402]
100471095  BAX; apoptosis regulator BAX isoform X1 [KO:K02159]
100472241  BAK1; bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer [KO:K14021]
100479738  DDB2; DNA damage-binding protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K10140]
100464732  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa isoform X2 [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
100475573  CDH1; cadherin-1 [KO:K05689]
105240970  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cadherin-1 [KO:K05689]
100477834  CTNNB1; catenin beta-1 [KO:K02105]
100476528  TCF7; transcription factor 7 isoform X2 [KO:K02620]
100480690  TCF7L1; transcription factor 7-like 1 [KO:K04490]
100467719  TCF7L2; transcription factor 7-like 2 isoform X6 [KO:K04491]
100465982  LEF1; lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 isoform X2 [KO:K04492]
100464396  MYC; myc proto-oncogene protein [KO:K04377]
100469787  CCND1; G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 isoform X1 [KO:K04503]
Reference
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
  Authors
Chiloeches A, Marais R.
  Title
Is BRAF the Achilles' Heel of thyroid cancer?
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 12:1661-4 (2006)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0051
Reference
  Authors
Reddi HV, McIver B, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL
  Title
The paired box-8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma oncogene in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  Journal
Endocrinology 148:932-5 (2007)
DOI:10.1210/en.2006-0926
Reference
  Authors
Santoro M, Melillo RM, Fusco A.
  Title
RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 155:645-653 (2006)
DOI:10.1530/eje.1.02289
Reference
  Authors
Pierotti MA, Greco A.
  Title
Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1/NGF receptor.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 232:90-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.07.043
Reference
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
  Authors
Williams D.
  Title
Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:543-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc845
Related
pathway
aml03320  PPAR signaling pathway
aml04010  MAPK signaling pathway
aml04115  p53 signaling pathway
aml04310  Wnt signaling pathway
aml04520  Adherens junction
KO pathway
ko05216   
LinkDB

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