KEGG   PATHWAY: ec00940
Entry
ec00940                     Pathway                                

Name
Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
Description
Phenylpropanoids are a group of plant secondary metabolites derived from phenylalanine and having a wide variety of functions both as structural and signaling molecules. Phenylalanine is first converted to cinnamic acid by deamination. It is followed by hydroxylation and frequent methylation to generate coumaric acid and other acids with a phenylpropane (C6-C3) unit. Reduction of the CoA-activated carboxyl groups of these acids results in the corresponding aldehydes and alcohols. The alcohols are called monolignols, the starting compounds for biosynthesis of lignin.
Class
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
Pathway map
ec00940  Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
ec00940

Module
M00039  Monolignol biosynthesis, phenylalanine/tyrosine => monolignol [PATH:ec00940]
M00137  Flavanone biosynthesis, phenylalanine => naringenin [PATH:ec00940]
Other DBs
GO: 0009699
Enzyme
1.1.1.195   
1.1.1.318   
1.1.1.319   
1.11.1.21   
1.11.1.7   
1.13.11.22   
1.14.11.61   
1.14.11.62   
1.14.13.14   
1.14.14.91   
1.14.14.96   
1.2.1.44   
1.2.1.68   
2.1.1.104   
2.1.1.146   
2.1.1.279   
2.1.1.68   
2.3.1.133   
2.3.1.91   
2.3.1.92   
2.3.1.99   
2.4.1.111   
2.4.1.114   
2.4.1.120   
2.4.1.128   
3.1.1.49   
3.2.1.126   
3.2.1.21   
4.1.1.102   
4.3.1.24   
4.3.1.25   
6.2.1.12   
Compound
C00079  L-Phenylalanine
C00082  L-Tyrosine
C00223  p-Coumaroyl-CoA
C00315  Spermidine
C00323  Caffeoyl-CoA
C00406  Feruloyl-CoA
C00411  Sinapoyl-CoA
C00423  trans-Cinnamate
C00482  Sinapate
C00540  Cinnamoyl-CoA
C00590  Coniferyl alcohol
C00761  Coniferin
C00811  4-Coumarate
C00852  Chlorogenate
C00903  Cinnamaldehyde
C00933  Sinapine
C01175  1-O-Sinapoyl-beta-D-glucose
C01197  Caffeate
C01494  Ferulate
C01527  Scopolin
C01533  Syringin
C01752  Scopoletin
C01772  trans-2-Hydroxycinnamate
C02325  Sinapyl alcohol
C02646  4-Coumaryl alcohol
C02666  Coniferyl aldehyde
C02887  Sinapoyl malate
C02947  4-Coumaroylshikimate
C04366  3-(2-Carboxyethenyl)-cis,cis-muconate
C05158  trans-beta-D-Glucosyl-2-hydroxycinnamate
C05608  4-Hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde
C05610  Sinapoyl aldehyde
C05619  5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester
C05627  4-Hydroxystyrene
C05838  cis-2-Hydroxycinnamate
C05839  cis-beta-D-Glucosyl-2-hydroxycinnamate
C05851  Coumarin
C05855  4-Hydroxycinnamyl alcohol 4-D-glucoside
C06224  3,4-Dihydroxystyrene
C09315  Umbelliferone
C10428  Anethole
C10434  5-O-Caffeoylshikimic acid
C10452  Estragole
C10453  Eugenol
C10454  Methyleugenol
C10469  Isoeugenol
C10478  Methylisoeugenol
C10945  Caffeic aldehyde
C12203  5-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
C12204  5-Hydroxyconiferaldehyde
C12205  5-Hydroxyconiferyl alcohol
C12206  Caffeyl alcohol
C12208  p-Coumaroyl quinic acid
C15804  p-Hydroxyphenyl lignin
C15805  Guaiacyl lignin
C15806  Syringyl lignin
C15807  5-Hydroxy-guaiacyl lignin
C16930  Chavicol
C18069  N1,N5,N10-Tricoumaroyl spermidine
C18070  N1,N5,N10-Tricaffeoyl spermidine
C18071  N1,N5,N10-Triferuloyl spermidine
C18072  N1,N5,N10-Tri(hydroxyferuloyl) spermidine
C18073  N1,N5-Di(hydroxyferuloyl)-N10-sinapoyl spermidine
C20225  Coniferyl acetate
C20464  Isochavicol
C20465  Coumaryl acetate
C21459  6-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA
C22070  2,4-Dihydroxycinnamoyl-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Nair RB, Bastress KL, Ruegger MO, Denault JW, Chapple C.
  Title
The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 16:544-54 (2004)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.017509
Reference
  Authors
Baucher M, Halpin C, Petit-Conil M, Boerjan W.
  Title
Lignin: genetic engineering and impact on pulping.
  Journal
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 38:305-50 (2003)
DOI:10.1080/10409230391036757
Reference
  Authors
Rogers LA, Dubos C, Cullis IF, Surman C, Poole M, Willment J, Mansfield SD, Campbell MM.
  Title
Light, the circadian clock, and sugar perception in the control of lignin biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Exp Bot 56:1651-63 (2005)
DOI:10.1093/jxb/eri162
Reference
  Authors
Whetten R, Sederoff R.
  Title
Lignin Biosynthesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 7:1001-1013 (1995)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.7.7.1001
Reference
PMID:8972602
  Authors
Lorenzen M, Racicot V, Strack D, Chapple C.
  Title
Sinapic acid ester metabolism in wild type and a sinapoylglucose-accumulating mutant of arabidopsis.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 112:1625-30 (1996)
DOI:10.1104/pp.112.4.1625
Reference
PMID:1477555
  Authors
Chapple CC, Vogt T, Ellis BE, Somerville CR.
  Title
An Arabidopsis mutant defective in the general phenylpropanoid pathway.
  Journal
Plant Cell 4:1413-24 (1992)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.4.11.1413
Reference
  Authors
Raes J, Rohde A, Christensen JH, Van de Peer Y, Boerjan W.
  Title
Genome-wide characterization of the lignification toolbox in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 133:1051-71 (2003)
DOI:10.1104/pp.103.026484
Reference
  Authors
Costa MA, Collins RE, Anterola AM, Cochrane FC, Davin LB, Lewis NG.
  Title
An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 64:1097-112 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00517-X
Reference
  Authors
Meyermans H, Morreel K, Lapierre C, Pollet B, De Bruyn A, Busson R, Herdewijn P, Devreese B, Van Beeumen J, Marita JM, Ralph J, Chen C, Burggraeve B, Van Montagu M, Messens E, Boerjan W.
  Title
Modifications in lignin and accumulation of phenolic glucosides in poplar xylem upon down-regulation of caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 275:36899-909 (2000)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M006915200
Reference
  Authors
Gachon CM, Langlois-Meurinne M, Henry Y, Saindrenan P.
  Title
Transcriptional co-regulation of secondary metabolism enzymes in Arabidopsis: functional and evolutionary implications.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 58:229-45 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s11103-005-5346-5
Reference
  Authors
Li L, Popko JL, Umezawa T, Chiang VL.
  Title
5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde modulates enzymatic methylation for syringyl monolignol formation, a new view of monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 275:6537-45 (2000)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.275.9.6537
Reference
  Authors
Yamauchi K, Yasuda S, Fukushima K.
  Title
Evidence for the biosynthetic pathway from sinapic acid to syringyl lignin using labeled sinapic acid with stable isotope at both methoxy groups in Robinia pseudoacacia and Nerium indicum.
  Journal
J Agric Food Chem 50:3222-7 (2002)
DOI:10.1021/jf011565x
Reference
  Authors
Eckardt NA.
  Title
Probing the mysteries of lignin biosynthesis: the crystal structure of caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic acid 3/5-O-methyltransferase provides new insights.
  Journal
Plant Cell 14:1185-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.140610
Related
pathway
ec00130  Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
ec00400  Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
ec00941  Flavonoid biosynthesis
ec00945  Stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis
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