KEGG   PATHWAY: hai05214
hai05214                    Pathway                                

Glioma - Hipposideros armiger (great roundleaf bat)
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
hai05214  Glioma

Hipposideros armiger (great roundleaf bat) [GN:hai]
109379436  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
109385384  TGFA; transforming growth factor alpha [KO:K08774]
109388365  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:]
109380137  PDGFA; platelet derived growth factor subunit A [KO:K04359]
109392273  PDGFB; platelet derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
109381815  PDGFRA; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:]
109375002  PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:]
109387785  IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 [KO:K05459]
109380372  IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:]
109379925  PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:]
109378365  PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:]
109382670  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
109380340  calmodulin-like [KO:K02183]
109391149  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
109383794  calmodulin-like protein 3 [KO:K02183]
109383796  calmodulin-like [KO:K02183]
109372230  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
109389917  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
109396120  CAMK1G; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG [KO:K08794] [EC:]
109390487  CAMK1D; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase ID [KO:K08794] [EC:]
109372542  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:]
109373019  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
109375001  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:]
109390284  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
109391534  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV [KO:K05869] [EC:]
109380289  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:]
109386578  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:]
109372505  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:]
109393422  SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
109390676  SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
109376923  SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
109394486  SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
109383688  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
109385471  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
109375221  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
109375639  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
109385150  GTPase HRas-like [KO:K02833]
109389264  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
109377015  NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
109376563  ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:]
109395605  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:]
109384548  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
109385252  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
109388626  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
109385803  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
109394900  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
109381238  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
109394108  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
109372681  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:]
109382484  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
109395865  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
109373811  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
109381083  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
109385878  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase-like [KO:K04456] [EC:]
109374859  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
109385353  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
109381262  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin [KO:K07203] [EC:]
109387530  PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:]
109374675  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A-like [KO:K06621]
109381699  MDM2; MDM2 proto-oncogene [KO:K06643] [EC:]
109394672  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
109395991  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
109389297  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
109390747  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:]
109373596  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:]
109387138  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
109377242  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
109386699  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
109381623  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
109384926  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
109374090  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma [KO:K04402]
109390584  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
109391068  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
109392454  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
109390202  DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
109381899  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:]
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Soni D, King JA, Kaye AH, Hovens CM.
Genetics of glioblastoma multiforme: mitogenic signaling and cell cycle pathways converge.
J Clin Neurosci 12:1-5 (2005)
Zhu Y, Parada LF.
The molecular and genetic basis of neurological tumours.
Nat Rev Cancer 2:616-26 (2002)
Holland EC.
Gliomagenesis: genetic alterations and mouse models.
Nat Rev Genet 2:120-9 (2001)
Bansal K, Liang ML, Rutka JT.
Molecular biology of human gliomas.
Technol Cancer Res Treat 5:185-94 (2006)
Tabuchi K (ed).
[Gliomas: Research and therapy] (In Japanese)
Springer-Verlag Tokyo (2006)
Kapoor GS, O'Rourke DM.
Mitogenic signaling cascades in glial tumors.
Neurosurgery 52:1425-34; discussion 1434-5 (2003)
Hulleman E, Helin K.
Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis.
Adv Cancer Res 94:1-27 (2005)
Schlessinger J.
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
Cell 103:211-25 (2000)
Ng HK, Lam PY.
The molecular genetics of central nervous system tumors.
Pathology 30:196-202 (1998)
Knobbe CB, Merlo A, Reifenberger G.
Pten signaling in gliomas.
Neuro-oncol 4:196-211 (2002)
hai04010  MAPK signaling pathway
hai04012  ErbB signaling pathway
hai04020  Calcium signaling pathway
hai04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
hai04110  Cell cycle
hai04115  p53 signaling pathway
hai04150  mTOR signaling pathway
KO pathway

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