KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05203Help
Entry
hsa05203                    Pathway                                

Name
Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: overview
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05203  Viral carcinogenesis
hsa05203

Ortholog table
Network
nt06124  Chemokine signaling (viruses)
nt06136  Complement activation (viruses)
nt06164  Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
  Element
N00212  KSHV vCCL2 to CCR signaling pathway
N00213  KSHV Kaposin to alternative pathway of complement activation
Disease
H00007  Hodgkin lymphoma
H00008  Burkitt lymphoma
H00009  Adult T-cell leukemia
H00025  Penile cancer
H00030  Cervical cancer
H00041  Kaposi sarcoma
H00044  Cancer of the anal canal
H00048  Hepatocellular carcinoma
H00054  Nasopharyngeal cancer
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
6714  SRC; SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05704] [EC:2.7.10.2]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
1385  CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
1386  ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
468  ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
10488  CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 4 [KO:K09048]
9586  CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
1642  DDB1; damage specific DNA binding protein 1 [KO:K10610]
7534  YWHAZ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta [KO:K16197]
7529  YWHAB; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta [KO:K16197]
10971  YWHAQ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein theta [KO:K16197]
7531  YWHAE; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon [KO:K06630]
7533  YWHAH; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein eta [KO:K16198]
7532  YWHAG; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma [KO:K16198]
3716  JAK1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6774  STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
6776  STAT5A; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A [KO:K11223]
6777  STAT5B; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [KO:K11224]
836  CASP3; caspase 3 [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
3249  HPN; hepsin [KO:K08665] [EC:3.4.21.106]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
5966  REL; REL proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K09254]
4791  NFKB2; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 2 [KO:K04469]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
898  CCNE1; cyclin E1 [KO:K06626]
9134  CCNE2; cyclin E2 [KO:K06626]
1017  CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1959  EGR2; early growth response 2 [KO:K12496]
1960  EGR3; early growth response 3 [KO:K12497]
7419  VDAC3; voltage dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
4055  LTBR; lymphotoxin beta receptor [KO:K03159]
6672  SP100; SP100 nuclear antigen [KO:K15413]
3190  HNRNPK; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [KO:K12886]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
1654  DDX3X; DEAD-box helicase 3 X-linked [KO:K11594] [EC:3.6.4.13]
5610  EIF2AK2; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 2 [KO:K16195] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
8341  H2BC15; H2B clustered histone 15 [KO:K11252]
8345  H2BC9; H2B clustered histone 9 [KO:K11252]
8342  H2BC14; H2B clustered histone 14 [KO:K11252]
158983  H2BW1; H2B.W histone 1 [KO:K11252]
255626  H2BC1; H2B clustered histone 1 [KO:K11252]
440689  H2BC18; H2B clustered histone 18 [KO:K11252]
8348  H2BC17; H2B clustered histone 17 [KO:K11252]
3018  H2BC3; H2B clustered histone 3 [KO:K11252]
8339  H2BC8; H2B clustered histone 8 [KO:K11252]
8340  H2BC13; H2B clustered histone 13 [KO:K11252]
8347  H2BC4; H2B clustered histone 4 [KO:K11252]
3017  H2BC5; H2B clustered histone 5 [KO:K11252]
8344  H2BC6; H2B clustered histone 6 [KO:K11252]
8346  H2BC10; H2B clustered histone 10 [KO:K11252]
8349  H2BC21; H2B clustered histone 21 [KO:K11252]
8970  H2BC11; H2B clustered histone 11 [KO:K11252]
85236  H2BC12; H2B clustered histone 12 [KO:K11252]
128312  H2BU1; H2B.U histone 1 [KO:K11252]
8343  H2BC7; H2B clustered histone 7 [KO:K11252]
286436  H2BW2; H2B.W histone 2 [KO:K11252]
121504  H4-16; H4 histone 16 [KO:K11254]
554313  H4C15; H4 clustered histone 15 [KO:K11254]
8294  H4C9; H4 clustered histone 9 [KO:K11254]
8360  H4C4; H4 clustered histone 4 [KO:K11254]
8361  H4C6; H4 clustered histone 6 [KO:K11254]
8362  H4C12; H4 clustered histone 12 [KO:K11254]
8363  H4C11; H4 clustered histone 11 [KO:K11254]
8364  H4C3; H4 clustered histone 3 [KO:K11254]
8365  H4C8; H4 clustered histone 8 [KO:K11254]
8366  H4C2; H4 clustered histone 2 [KO:K11254]
8367  H4C5; H4 clustered histone 5 [KO:K11254]
8368  H4C13; H4 clustered histone 13 [KO:K11254]
8370  H4C14; H4 clustered histone 14 [KO:K11254]
8359  H4C1; H4 clustered histone 1 [KO:K11254]
8369  H4C7; H4 clustered histone 7 [KO:K11254]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
8717  TRADD; TNFRSF1A associated via death domain [KO:K03171]
983  CDK1; cyclin dependent kinase 1 [KO:K02087] [EC:2.7.11.23 2.7.11.22]
387332  TBPL2; TATA-box binding protein like 2 [KO:K03120]
9519  TBPL1; TATA-box binding protein like 1 [KO:K03120]
6908  TBP; TATA-box binding protein [KO:K03120]
7874  USP7; ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 [KO:K11838] [EC:3.4.19.12]
4193  MDM2; MDM2 proto-oncogene [KO:K06643] [EC:2.3.2.27]
11317  RBPJL; recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region like [KO:K06053]
3516  RBPJ; recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region [KO:K06053]
22938  SNW1; SNW domain containing 1 [KO:K06063]
2965  GTF2H1; general transcription factor IIH subunit 1 [KO:K03141]
2966  GTF2H2; general transcription factor IIH subunit 2 [KO:K03142]
730394  GTF2H2C_2; GTF2H2 family member C, copy 2 [KO:K03142]
728340  GTF2H2C; GTF2H2 family member C [KO:K03142]
2967  GTF2H3; general transcription factor IIH subunit 3 [KO:K03143]
2968  GTF2H4; general transcription factor IIH subunit 4 [KO:K03144]
2960  GTF2E1; general transcription factor IIE subunit 1 [KO:K03136]
2961  GTF2E2; general transcription factor IIE subunit 2 [KO:K03137]
27044  SND1; staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 [KO:K15979]
1387  CREBBP; CREB binding protein [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2033  EP300; E1A binding protein p300 [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2959  GTF2B; general transcription factor IIB [KO:K03124]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
894  CCND2; cyclin D2 [KO:K10151]
896  CCND3; cyclin D3 [KO:K10152]
1021  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
890  CCNA2; cyclin A2 [KO:K06627]
8900  CCNA1; cyclin A1 [KO:K06627]
6502  SKP2; S-phase kinase associated protein 2 [KO:K03875]
28973  MRPS18B; mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B [KO:K16174]
7185  TRAF1; TNF receptor associated factor 1 [KO:K03172]
7186  TRAF2; TNF receptor associated factor 2 [KO:K03173] [EC:2.3.2.27]
7187  TRAF3; TNF receptor associated factor 3 [KO:K03174]
7188  TRAF5; TNF receptor associated factor 5 [KO:K09849]
3718  JAK3; Janus kinase 3 [KO:K11218] [EC:2.7.10.2]
4067  LYN; LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K05854] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6850  SYK; spleen associated tyrosine kinase [KO:K05855] [EC:2.7.10.2]
9114  ATP6V0D1; ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit d1 [KO:K02146]
245972  ATP6V0D2; ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit d2 [KO:K02146]
7337  UBE3A; ubiquitin protein ligase E3A [KO:K10587] [EC:2.3.2.26]
1739  DLG1; discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1 [KO:K12076]
23513  SCRIB; scribble planar cell polarity protein [KO:K16175]
5829  PXN; paxillin [KO:K05760]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
3661  IRF3; interferon regulatory factor 3 [KO:K05411]
5700  PSMC1; proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase 1 [KO:K03062]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
5933  RBL1; RB transcriptional corepressor like 1 [KO:K04681]
5934  RBL2; RB transcriptional corepressor like 2 [KO:K16332]
1027  CDKN1B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B [KO:K06624]
23352  UBR4; ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4 [KO:K10691] [EC:2.3.2.27]
3725  JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04448]
1108  CHD4; chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4 [KO:K11643] [EC:3.6.4.12]
3065  HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
3066  HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
8841  HDAC3; histone deacetylase 3 [KO:K11404] [EC:3.5.1.98]
9759  HDAC4; histone deacetylase 4 [KO:K11406] [EC:3.5.1.98]
10014  HDAC5; histone deacetylase 5 [KO:K11406] [EC:3.5.1.98]
10013  HDAC6; histone deacetylase 6 [KO:K11407] [EC:3.5.1.98]
51564  HDAC7; histone deacetylase 7 [KO:K11408] [EC:3.5.1.98]
55869  HDAC8; histone deacetylase 8 [KO:K11405] [EC:3.5.1.98]
9734  HDAC9; histone deacetylase 9 [KO:K11409] [EC:3.5.1.98]
83933  HDAC10; histone deacetylase 10 [KO:K18671] [EC:3.5.1.98]
79885  HDAC11; histone deacetylase 11 [KO:K11418] [EC:3.5.1.98]
5315  PKM; pyruvate kinase M1/2 [KO:K00873] [EC:2.7.1.40]
10379  IRF9; interferon regulatory factor 9 [KO:K04693]
9093  DNAJA3; DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member A3 [KO:K09504]
8850  KAT2B; lysine acetyltransferase 2B [KO:K06062] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2648  KAT2A; lysine acetyltransferase 2A [KO:K06062] [EC:2.3.1.48]
11036  GTF2A1L; general transcription factor IIA subunit 1 like [KO:K03122]
2957  GTF2A1; general transcription factor IIA subunit 1 [KO:K03122]
2958  GTF2A2; general transcription factor IIA subunit 2 [KO:K03123]
6722  SRF; serum response factor [KO:K04378]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
5922  RASA2; RAS p21 protein activator 2 [KO:K08053]
998  CDC42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
5879  RAC1; Rac family small GTPase 1 [KO:K04392]
387  RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
2934  GSN; gelsolin [KO:K05768]
85477  SCIN; scinderin [KO:K05768]
87  ACTN1; actinin alpha 1 [KO:K05699]
81  ACTN4; actinin alpha 4 [KO:K05699]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1029  CDKN2A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [KO:K06621]
1030  CDKN2B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [KO:K04685]
1111  CHEK1; checkpoint kinase 1 [KO:K02216] [EC:2.7.11.1]
991  CDC20; cell division cycle 20 [KO:K03363]
8379  MAD1L1; mitotic arrest deficient 1 like 1 [KO:K06679]
55697  VAC14; VAC14 component of PIKFYVE complex [KO:K15305]
5902  RANBP1; RAN binding protein 1 [KO:K15306]
5423  POLB; DNA polymerase beta [KO:K02330] [EC:4.2.99.- 2.7.7.7]
3665  IRF7; interferon regulatory factor 7 [KO:K09447]
3572  IL6ST; interleukin 6 signal transducer [KO:K05060]
1234  CCR5; C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K04180]
1237  CCR8; C-C motif chemokine receptor 8 [KO:K04183]
1232  CCR3; C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 [KO:K04178]
1233  CCR4; C-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04179]
9261  MAPKAPK2; MAPK activated protein kinase 2 [KO:K04443] [EC:2.7.11.1]
841  CASP8; caspase 8 [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
572  BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
5366  PMAIP1; phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 [KO:K10131]
718  C3; complement C3 [KO:K03990]
3105  HLA-A; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
3106  HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B [KO:K06751]
3107  HLA-C; major histocompatibility complex, class I, C [KO:K06751]
3134  HLA-F; major histocompatibility complex, class I, F [KO:K06751]
3135  HLA-G; major histocompatibility complex, class I, G [KO:K06751]
3133  HLA-E; major histocompatibility complex, class I, E [KO:K06751]
Reference
  Authors
McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Munger K
  Title
Viruses associated with human cancer.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1782:127-50 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2007.12.005
Reference
  Authors
Moore PS, Chang Y
  Title
Why do viruses cause cancer? Highlights of the first century of human tumour virology.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 10:878-89 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2961
Reference
  Authors
Kalland KH, Ke XS, Oyan AM
  Title
Tumour virology--history, status and future challenges.
  Journal
APMIS 117:382-99 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2009.02452.x
Reference
  Authors
Boccardo E, Villa LL
  Title
Viral origins of human cancer.
  Journal
Curr Med Chem 14:2526-39 (2007)
DOI:10.2174/092986707782023316
Reference
  Authors
Saha A, Kaul R, Murakami M, Robertson ES
  Title
Tumor viruses and cancer biology: Modulating signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention.
  Journal
Cancer Biol Ther 10:961-78 (2010)
DOI:10.4161/cbt.10.10.13923
Reference
  Authors
Zheng ZM
  Title
Viral oncogenes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing in human tumor viruses.
  Journal
Int J Biol Sci 6:730-55 (2010)
DOI:10.7150/ijbs.6.730
Reference
  Authors
Martin D, Gutkind JS
  Title
Human tumor-associated viruses and new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer.
  Journal
Oncogene 27 Suppl 2:S31-42 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/onc.2009.351
Reference
  Authors
Zhang X, Zhang H, Ye L
  Title
Effects of hepatitis B virus X protein on the development of liver cancer.
  Journal
J Lab Clin Med 147:58-66 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.lab.2005.10.003
Reference
  Authors
Panteva M, Korkaya H, Jameel S
  Title
Hepatitis viruses and the MAPK pathway: is this a survival strategy?
  Journal
Virus Res 92:131-40 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0168-1702(02)00356-8
Reference
  Authors
Ng SA, Lee C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X gene and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol 46:974-90 (2011)
DOI:10.1007/s00535-011-0415-9
Reference
  Authors
Nishida N, Goel A
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic signatures in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.
  Journal
Curr Genomics 12:130-7 (2011)
DOI:10.2174/138920211795564359
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein molecular functions and its role in virus life cycle and pathogenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 103:75-109 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(09)03004-8
Reference
  Authors
Tan A, Yeh SH, Liu CJ, Cheung C, Chen PJ
  Title
Viral hepatocarcinogenesis: from infection to cancer.
  Journal
Liver Int 28:175-88 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01652.x
Reference
PMID:9343405
  Authors
Klein NP, Schneider RJ
  Title
Activation of Src family kinases by hepatitis B virus HBx protein and coupled signaling to Ras.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 17:6427-36 (1997)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.17.11.6427
Reference
  Authors
Ding Q, Xia W, Liu JC, Yang JY, Lee DF, Xia J, Bartholomeusz G, Li Y, Pan Y, Li Z, Bargou RC, Qin J, Lai CC, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Hung MC
  Title
Erk associates with and primes GSK-3beta for its inactivation resulting in upregulation of beta-catenin.
  Journal
Mol Cell 19:159-70 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.06.009
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Neuveut C, Buendia MA
  Title
Liver cell transformation in chronic HBV infection.
  Journal
Viruses 1:630-46 (2009)
DOI:10.3390/v1030630
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Khine AA, Sarangi F, Hsu E, Iorio C, Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR, Penninger J, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis and is associated with up-regulation of the SAPK/JNK pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:8328-40 (2001)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M006026200
Reference
  Authors
Arbuthnot P, Capovilla A, Kew M
  Title
Putative role of hepatitis B virus X protein in hepatocarcinogenesis: effects on apoptosis, DNA repair, mitogen-activated protein kinase and JAK/STAT pathways.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:357-68 (2000)
DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2000.02069.x
Reference
PMID:9837909
  Authors
Gottlob K, Fulco M, Levrero M, Graessmann A
  Title
The hepatitis B virus HBx protein inhibits caspase 3 activity.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:33347-53 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.50.33347
Reference
  Authors
Zhang JL, Zhao WG, Wu KL, Wang K, Zhang X, Gu CF, Li Y, Zhu Y, Wu JG
  Title
Human hepatitis B virus X protein promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cell apoptosis through interacting with a serine protease Hepsin.
  Journal
Arch Virol 150:721-41 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00705-004-0446-0
Reference
  Authors
Cooray S
  Title
The pivotal role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signal transduction in virus survival.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 85:1065-76 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/vir.0.19771-0
Reference
  Authors
Mukherji A, Janbandhu VC, Kumar V
  Title
HBx-dependent cell cycle deregulation involves interaction with cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex and destabilization of p27Kip1.
  Journal
Biochem J 401:247-56 (2007)
DOI:10.1042/BJ20061091
Reference
  Authors
Yoo YG, Lee MO
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces expression of Fas ligand gene through enhancing transcriptional activity of early growth response factor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:36242-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M401290200
Reference
  Authors
Waris G, Huh KW, Siddiqui A
  Title
Mitochondrially associated hepatitis B virus X protein constitutively activates transcription factors STAT-3 and NF-kappa B via oxidative stress.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 21:7721-30 (2001)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.21.22.7721-7730.2001
Reference
  Authors
Kasprzak A, Adamek A
  Title
Role of hepatitis C virus proteins (C, NS3, NS5A) in hepatic oncogenesis.
  Journal
Hepatol Res 38:1-26 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00261.x
Reference
PMID:9882379
  Authors
You LR, Chen CM, Lee YH
  Title
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