KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05216
Entry
ko05216                     Pathway                                

Name
Thyroid cancer
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells. Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
ko05216  Thyroid cancer
ko05216

Disease
H00032  Thyroid cancer
Orthology
K05126  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Ret [EC:2.7.10.1]
K09288  coiled-coil domain-containing protein 6
K09289  nuclear receptor coactivator 4
K03176  neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K09290  tropomyosin 3
K09291  nucleoprotein TPR
K09292  protein TFG
K02833  GTPase HRas
K07828  GTPase NRas
K07827  GTPase KRas
K04365  B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04368  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04369  mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [EC:2.7.12.2]
K04371  mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K09293  paired box protein 8
K08530  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
K08524  retinoid X receptor alpha
K08525  retinoid X receptor beta
K08526  retinoid X receptor gamma
K04451  tumor protein p53
K06625  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K04402  growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein
K02159  apoptosis regulator BAX
K14021  Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K10140  DNA damage-binding protein 2
K03511  DNA polymerase kappa [EC:2.7.7.7]
K05689  cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin
K02105  catenin beta 1
K02620  transcription factor 7
K04490  transcription factor 7-like 1
K04491  transcription factor 7-like 2
K04492  lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1
K04377  Myc proto-oncogene protein
K04503  G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
Reference
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
  Authors
Chiloeches A, Marais R.
  Title
Is BRAF the Achilles' Heel of thyroid cancer?
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 12:1661-4 (2006)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0051
Reference
  Authors
Reddi HV, McIver B, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL
  Title
The paired box-8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma oncogene in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  Journal
Endocrinology 148:932-5 (2007)
DOI:10.1210/en.2006-0926
Reference
  Authors
Santoro M, Melillo RM, Fusco A.
  Title
RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 155:645-653 (2006)
DOI:10.1530/eje.1.02289
Reference
  Authors
Pierotti MA, Greco A.
  Title
Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1/NGF receptor.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 232:90-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.07.043
Reference
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
  Authors
Williams D.
  Title
Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:543-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc845
Related
pathway
ko03320  PPAR signaling pathway
ko04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ko04115  p53 signaling pathway
ko04310  Wnt signaling pathway
ko04520  Adherens junction
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