KEGG   PATHWAY: lav04725
Entry
lav04725                    Pathway                                

Name
Cholinergic synapse - Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant)
Description
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT).
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
Pathway map
lav04725  Cholinergic synapse
lav04725

Other DBs
GO: 0032222
Organism
Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant) [GN:lav]
Gene
100662470  CHAT; choline O-acetyltransferase isoform X1 [KO:K00623] [EC:2.3.1.6]
100674399  ACHE; acetylcholinesterase isoform X1 [KO:K01049] [EC:3.1.1.7]
100673370  SLC18A3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: vesicular acetylcholine transporter [KO:K14636]
100674374  CHRM1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 [KO:K04129]
100667215  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
100656243  CHRM5; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 [KO:K04133]
100656672  GNAQ; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04634]
100675896  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 [KO:K04635]
100670617  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100672435  PLCB1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100668575  PLCB2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100663829  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100665028  ITPR1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
100667845  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
100659666  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
100665537  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100672078  PRKCB; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100671733  PRKCG; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100666129  KCNQ1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 [KO:K04926]
100666444  KCNQ3; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3 [KO:K04928]
100673400  KCNQ4; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 4 [KO:K04929]
100659106  KCNQ5; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5 [KO:K04930]
100661939  KCNJ2; inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K04996]
100666683  KCNJ12; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 12 [KO:K05005]
100666015  KCNJ4; inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04998]
100677534  KCNJ14; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 14 [KO:K05007]
100666496  CHRM2; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 [KO:K04130]
100676992  CHRM4; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 [KO:K04132]
100666344  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
100670234  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
100667957  GNAI3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
100658419  GNAO1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha [KO:K04534]
100673391  GNB1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
100677127  GNB2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 [KO:K04537]
100674807  GNB3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 [KO:K07825]
100669106  GNB4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 [KO:K04538]
100674665  GNB5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 isoform X1 [KO:K04539]
100668996  GNG2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 isoform X2 [KO:K07826]
100676083  GNG3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 [KO:K04540]
100664179  GNG4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 [KO:K04541]
100656403  GNG5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 [KO:K04542]
100655407  GNG7; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 [KO:K04543]
100662559  GNG10; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 [KO:K04545]
111749727  GNG11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 [KO:K04546]
111751488  GNG14; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-14 [KO:K04347]
111750996  GNG12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
100675882  GNG13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 [KO:K04547]
111749728  GNGT1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 [KO:K04548]
111751775  GNGT2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 [KO:K04549]
100668323  KCNJ3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 [KO:K04997]
100676455  KCNJ6; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K05000]
100673566  PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform [KO:K21289] [EC:2.7.1.153]
100670067  PIK3R5; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 isoform X1 [KO:K21290]
100674744  PIK3R6; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 6 isoform X1 [KO:K21290]
100661512  KRAS; GTPase KRas isoform X2 [KO:K07827]
100659051  NRAS; GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
100667623  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
100658240  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
100665157  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
100674799  FOS; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: proto-oncogene c-Fos [KO:K04379]
100656157  CHRNA7-FAM7A fusion protein [KO:K04809]
100664510  CHRNA4; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 [KO:K04806]
100677002  CHRNB2; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 [KO:K04813]
100674819  CHRNA3; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3 isoform X2 [KO:K04805]
100674530  CHRNB4; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 [KO:K04815]
100655453  CHRNA6; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6 [KO:K04808]
100671072  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100673570  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100674724  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100675525  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100670244  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653532  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653771  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100661616  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100663448  ADCY9; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100656966  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100674245  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100675162  CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05870]
100662521  ATF4; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 isoform X2 [KO:K04374]
100653565  CREB3L1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 [KO:K09048]
100673694  CREB3L4; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 [KO:K09048]
100666211  CREB3L2; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 2 [KO:K09048]
100670574  CREB3L3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 3 [KO:K09048]
100677344  CREB3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 isoform X1 [KO:K09048]
100675079  CREB5; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 isoform X1 [KO:K09047]
104846071  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100653927  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100663321  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta isoform X2 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100658516  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100671333  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV isoform X1 [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
100676652  JAK2; tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 isoform X1 [KO:K04447] [EC:2.7.10.2]
100675535  FYN; tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn isoform X2 [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
100657948  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
100658340  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
100666266  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
100653731  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
100665045  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K02649]
100675496  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K02649]
100663184  AKT2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
100657536  AKT3; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
100660187  AKT1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
100675268  BCL2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 [KO:K02161]
100655176  CACNA1A; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A [KO:K04344]
100660444  CACNA1B; voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B [KO:K04849]
100659992  CACNA1D; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D [KO:K04851]
100674649  CACNA1F; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F [KO:K04853]
100673089  CACNA1S; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S [KO:K04857]
100661269  SLC5A7; high affinity choline transporter 1 [KO:K14387]
Compound
C00010  CoA
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00033  Acetate
C00076  Calcium cation
C00114  Choline
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01996  Acetylcholine
C04637  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Nicholls JG, Martin AR, Wallace BG, Fuchs PA.
  Title
From neuron to brain, 4th ed.
  Journal
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer associates (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dajas-Bailador F, Wonnacott S
  Title
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the regulation of neuronal signalling.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:317-24 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.tips.2004.04.006
Reference
  Authors
Resende RR, Adhikari A
  Title
Cholinergic receptor pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation.
  Journal
Cell Commun Signal 7:20 (2009)
DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-7-20
Reference
  Authors
Origlia N, Kuczewski N, Pesavento E, Aztiria E, Domenici L
  Title
The role of cholinergic system in neuronal plasticity: focus on visual cortex and muscarinic receptors.
  Journal
Arch Ital Biol 146:165-88 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Oldenburg IA, Ding JB
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of synaptic integration and dendritic excitability in the striatum.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:425-32 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2011.04.004
Reference
  Authors
Lanzafame AA, Christopoulos A, Mitchelson F
  Title
Cellular signaling mechanisms for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  Journal
Receptors Channels 9:241-60 (2003)
DOI:10.3109/10606820308263
Reference
  Authors
Brown DA
  Title
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the nervous system: some functions and mechanisms.
  Journal
J Mol Neurosci 41:340-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9377-2
Reference
  Authors
Chang KT, Berg DK
  Title
Voltage-gated channels block nicotinic regulation of CREB phosphorylation and gene expression in neurons.
  Journal
Neuron 32:855-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00516-5
Reference
  Authors
Soreq H, Seidman S
  Title
Acetylcholinesterase--new roles for an old actor.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 2:294-302 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35067589
Reference
  Authors
Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S
  Title
Nicotinic receptor signaling in nonexcitable cells.
  Journal
J Neurobiol 53:524-34 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/neu.10114
Reference
  Authors
Araque A, Martin ED, Perea G, Arellano JI, Buno W
  Title
Synaptically released acetylcholine evokes Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes in hippocampal slices.
  Journal
J Neurosci 22:2443-50 (2002)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-07-02443.2002
Reference
  Authors
Lucas-Meunier E, Fossier P, Baux G, Amar M
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of the cortical neuronal network.
  Journal
Pflugers Arch 446:17-29 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00424-002-0999-2
Reference
  Authors
Abreu-Villaca Y, Filgueiras CC, Manhaes AC
  Title
Developmental aspects of the cholinergic system.
  Journal
Behav Brain Res 221:367-78 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.049
Related
pathway
lav00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
lav04010  MAPK signaling pathway
lav04020  Calcium signaling pathway
lav04721  Synaptic vesicle cycle
lav04975  Fat digestion and absorption
KO pathway
ko04725   
LinkDB

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