KEGG   PATHWAY: lav04970
Entry
lav04970                    Pathway                                

Name
Salivary secretion - Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant)
Description
Saliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for example. Salivary secretion occurs in response to stimulation by neurotransmitters released from autonomic nerve endings. There are two secretory pathways: protein exocytosis and fluid secretion. Sympathetic stimulation leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of intracellular cAMP. The elevation of cAMP causes the secretion of proteins such as amylase and mucin. In contrast, parasympathetic stimulation activates phospholipase C and causes the elevation of intracellular Ca2+, which leads to fluid secretion; that is, water and ion transport. Ca2+ also induces amylase secretion, but the amount is smaller than that induced by cAMP.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
Pathway map
lav04970  Salivary secretion
lav04970

Other DBs
GO: 0046541
Organism
Loxodonta africana (African savanna elephant) [GN:lav]
Gene
100654973  ADRB1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: beta-1 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04141]
100664615  ADRB2; beta-2 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04142]
100674524  ADRB3; beta-3 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04143]
100655206  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04632]
100669226  neuroendocrine secretory protein 55-like [KO:K04632]
100671072  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100673570  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100674724  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100675525  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100670244  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653532  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100653771  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100661616  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100663448  ADCY9; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
100656966  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100674245  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
100672461  VAMP2; vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K13504]
100668259  ADRA1A; alpha-1A adrenergic receptor [KO:K04135]
100675999  ADRA1B; alpha-1B adrenergic receptor [KO:K04136]
100667215  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
100656672  GNAQ; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04634]
100670617  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100672435  PLCB1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100668575  PLCB2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100663829  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
100665537  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100672078  PRKCB; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100671733  PRKCG; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
100665028  ITPR1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
100667845  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
100659666  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
100663737  RYR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: ryanodine receptor 3 [KO:K04963]
100663507  CALM1; calmodulin-1 [KO:K02183]
100664679  CALM2; calmodulin-2 [KO:K02183]
100657612  calmodulin [KO:K02183]
100669885  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K02183]
100658962  CALML3; calmodulin-like protein 3 [KO:K02183]
100658208  calmodulin [KO:K02183]
100673992  NOS1; nitric oxide synthase, brain isoform X2 [KO:K13240] [EC:1.14.13.39]
100662779  GUCY1A2; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 [KO:K12318] [EC:4.6.1.2]
100663946  GUCY1A1; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3 isoform X1 [KO:K12318] [EC:4.6.1.2]
100665374  GUCY1B1; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K12319] [EC:4.6.1.2]
100676051  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-2-like [KO:K12319] [EC:4.6.1.2]
100662471  PRKG1; cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K07376] [EC:2.7.11.12]
100657163  PRKG2; cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 [KO:K19477] [EC:2.7.11.12]
100660287  CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 [KO:K01242] [EC:3.2.2.6 2.4.99.20]
100659997  BST1; ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 2 [KO:K18152] [EC:3.2.2.6 2.4.99.20]
100658307  BEST2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: bestrophin-2 [KO:K13879]
100668326  ATP1A3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100667801  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100674070  ATP1A2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100661428  ATP1A1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 [KO:K01539] [EC:7.2.2.13]
100655666  ATP1B3; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3 [KO:K01540]
100660792  ATP1B4; protein ATP1B4 isoform X2 [KO:K01540]
100676526  ATP1B1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 [KO:K01540]
100668753  ATP1B2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2 [KO:K01540]
111752838  FXYD2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma [KO:K01538]
100656297  ATP2B4; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4 isoform X1 [KO:K05850] [EC:7.2.2.10]
100656553  ATP2B1; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05850] [EC:7.2.2.10]
100656362  ATP2B3; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3 [KO:K05850] [EC:7.2.2.10]
100655542  ATP2B2; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 [KO:K05850] [EC:7.2.2.10]
100653894  SLC12A2; solute carrier family 12 member 2 [KO:K10951]
100657419  KCNN4; intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4 [KO:K04945]
100656201  KCNMA1; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 isoform X6 [KO:K04936]
100672425  SLC4A2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: anion exchange protein 2 [KO:K13855]
104846349  SLC9A1; sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 [KO:K05742]
100663115  transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 isoform X2 [KO:K04975]
104847161  MUC5B; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mucin-5B [KO:K13908]
100661620  pancreatic alpha-amylase [KO:K01176] [EC:3.2.1.1]
100661902  alpha-amylase 2B [KO:K01176] [EC:3.2.1.1]
100657004  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein-like [KO:K13912]
100675856  CST3; cystatin-C [KO:K13899]
100666513  lysozyme C, kidney isozyme isoform X1 [KO:K13915] [EC:3.2.1.17]
100667364  lysozyme C, spleen isozyme-like [KO:K13915] [EC:3.2.1.17]
100666803  lysozyme C-like [KO:K13915] [EC:3.2.1.17]
100666797  lysozyme C-like [KO:K13915] [EC:3.2.1.17]
100666538  lysozyme-like protein 1 [KO:K13915] [EC:3.2.1.17]
100659930  LPO; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: lactoperoxidase [KO:K12550] [EC:1.11.1.7]
100653643  CAMP; cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide [KO:K13916]
104845913  cathelicidin-related peptide Pt_CRAMP1-like [KO:K13916]
Compound
C00001  H2O
C00011  CO2
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00288  HCO3-
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00698  Cl-
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01353  Carbonic acid
C01996  Acetylcholine
C13050  Cyclic ADP-ribose
Reference
  Authors
Ishikawa Y, Cho G, Yuan Z, Skowronski MT, Pan Y, Ishida H
  Title
Water channels and zymogen granules in salivary glands.
  Journal
J Pharmacol Sci 100:495-512 (2006)
DOI:10.1254/jphs.CRJ06007X
Reference
  Authors
Ishikawa Y, Cho G, Yuan Z, Inoue N, Nakae Y
  Title
Aquaporin-5 water channel in lipid rafts of rat parotid glands.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1758:1053-60 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.03.026
Reference
  Authors
Ambudkar IS
  Title
Regulation of calcium in salivary gland secretion.
  Journal
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 11:4-25 (2000)
DOI:10.1177/10454411000110010301
Reference
  Authors
Ishikawa Y, Ishida H
  Title
Aquaporin water channel in salivary glands.
  Journal
Jpn J Pharmacol 83:95-101 (2000)
DOI:10.1254/jjp.83.95
Reference
PMID:8105741
  Authors
Baum BJ
  Title
Principles of saliva secretion.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 694:17-23 (1993)
DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18338.x
Reference
PMID:9720759
  Authors
Fujita-Yoshigaki J
  Title
Divergence and convergence in regulated exocytosis: the characteristics of cAMP-dependent enzyme secretion of parotid salivary acinar cells.
  Journal
Cell Signal 10:371-5 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0898-6568(97)00178-2
Reference
  Authors
Heitzmann D, Warth R
  Title
Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium channels in gastrointestinal epithelia.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 88:1119-82 (2008)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.00020.2007
Reference
  Authors
Proctor GB, Carpenter GH
  Title
Regulation of salivary gland function by autonomic nerves.
  Journal
Auton Neurosci 133:3-18 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.autneu.2006.10.006
Reference
  Authors
Turner RJ, Sugiya H
  Title
Understanding salivary fluid and protein secretion.
  Journal
Oral Dis 8:3-11 (2002)
DOI:10.1034/j.1601-0825.2002.10815.x
Reference
  Authors
Van Nieuw Amerongen A, Bolscher JG, Veerman EC
  Title
Salivary proteins: protective and diagnostic value in cariology?
  Journal
Caries Res 38:247-53 (2004)
DOI:10.1159/000077762
Reference
  Authors
Nakamoto T, Srivastava A, Romanenko VG, Ovitt CE, Perez-Cornejo P, Arreola J, Begenisich T, Melvin JE
  Title
Functional and molecular characterization of the fluid secretion mechanism in human parotid acinar cells.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R2380-90 (2007)
DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00591.2006
Reference
  Authors
Melvin JE, Yule D, Shuttleworth T, Begenisich T
  Title
Regulation of fluid and electrolyte secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 67:445-69 (2005)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.physiol.67.041703.084745
Reference
  Authors
Catalan MA, Nakamoto T, Melvin JE
  Title
The salivary gland fluid secretion mechanism.
  Journal
J Med Invest 56 Suppl:192-6 (2009)
DOI:10.2152/jmi.56.192
Related
pathway
lav04020  Calcium signaling pathway
lav04530  Tight junction
lav04973  Carbohydrate digestion and absorption
KO pathway
ko04970   
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