KEGG   PATHWAY: map00540
Entry
map00540                    Pathway                                

Name
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
Description
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria consisting of three domains: a hydrophobic anchor called lipid A, a non-repeating core oligosaccharide (OS) and a repetitive glycan polymer called O-antigen or O-polysaccharide (O-PS). The enzymes for the biosynthesis of lipid A are well conserved among Gram-negative bacterial species [MD:M00060 M00866]. The core OS connecting lipid A with O-antigen is divided into inner and outer parts. Five core types, K-12 and R1-R4, are identified in Escherichia coli, with the common inner part composed of Kdo (ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid) and Hep (heptose) residues and the outer part made of various sugar residues. O-antigen is the most variable part used for serotyping of pathogenic Escherichia coli, where about 170 types are known. All three domains are involved in toxicity, pathogenicity, antimicrobial resistance and other activities.
Class
Metabolism; Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism
Pathway map
map00540  Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
map00540

Module
M00060  KDO2-lipid A biosynthesis, Raetz pathway, LpxL-LpxM type [PATH:map00540]
M00063  CMP-KDO biosynthesis [PATH:map00540]
M00064  ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose biosynthesis [PATH:map00540]
M00866  KDO2-lipid A biosynthesis, Raetz pathway, non-LpxL-LpxM type [PATH:map00540]
M00867  KDO2-lipid A modification pathway [PATH:map00540]
Other DBs
GO: 0009103
Reference
PMID:9791168
  Authors
Heinrichs DE, Yethon JA, Whitfield C.
  Title
Molecular basis for structural diversity in the core regions of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 30:221-32 (1998)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01063.x
Reference
  Authors
Kneidinger B, Marolda C, Graninger M, Zamyatina A, McArthur F, Kosma P, Valvano MA, Messner P.
  Title
Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 184:363-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/JB.184.2.363-369.2002
Reference
PMID:9587193
  Authors
Wyckoff TJ, Raetz CR, Jackman JE.
  Title
Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents that target endotoxin.
  Journal
Trends Microbiol 6:154-9 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0966-842X(98)01230-X
Reference
PMID:9765561
  Authors
Shibayama K, Ohsuka S, Tanaka T, Arakawa Y, Ohta M.
  Title
Conserved structural regions involved in the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli K-12 WaaO (RfaI).
  Journal
J Bacteriol 180:5313-8 (1998)
DOI:10.1128/JB.180.20.5313-5318.1998
Reference
  Authors
Raetz CR, Whitfield C
  Title
Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins.
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 71:635-700 (2002)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.71.110601.135414
Reference
  Authors
Rubin EJ, O'Brien JP, Ivanov PL, Brodbelt JS, Trent MS
  Title
Identification of a broad family of lipid A late acyltransferases with non-canonical substrate specificity.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 91:887-99 (2014)
DOI:10.1111/mmi.12501
Reference
  Authors
Stead CM, Zhao J, Raetz CR, Trent MS
  Title
Removal of the outer Kdo from Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide and its impact on the bacterial surface.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 78:837-52 (2010)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07304.x
Reference
  Authors
Ebbensgaard A, Mordhorst H, Aarestrup FM, Hansen EB
  Title
The Role of Outer Membrane Proteins and Lipopolysaccharides for the Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Antimicrobial Peptides.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 9:2153 (2018)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.02153
Reference
  Authors
Botos I, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK
  Title
Insertion of proteins and lipopolysaccharide into the bacterial outer membrane.
  Journal
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 372:20160224 (2017)
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2016.0224
Related
pathway
map00030  Pentose phosphate pathway
map00520  Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
KO pathway
ko00540   
LinkDB

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