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Entry
map00965                    Pathway                                

Name
Betalain biosynthesis
Description
Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments that are present in plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales (such as cactus and amaranth families) and in higher fungi. They contain betalamic acid as the chromophore and are classified into two types: betacyanins and betaxanthins. Betacyanins contain a cyclo-DOPA residue and exhibit red/violet coloration, while betaxanthins contain different amino acids or amino side chains and exhibit a yellow/orange coloration. The condensation of betalamic acid with amino acids (including cyclo-DOPA or amines) in plants is a spontaneous reaction, not an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
Class
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map00965  Betalain biosynthesis
map00965

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Reference
  Authors
Gandia-Herrero F, Escribano J, Garcia-Carmona F
  Title
Betaxanthins as substrates for tyrosinase. An approach to the role of tyrosinase in the biosynthetic pathway of betalains.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 138:421-32 (2005)
DOI:10.1104/pp.104.057992
Reference
  Authors
Sasaki N, Abe Y, Wada K, Koda T, Goda Y, Adachi T, Ozeki Y
  Title
Amaranthin in feather cockscombs is synthesized via glucuronylation at the cyclo-DOPA glucoside step in the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
J Plant Res 118:439-42 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s10265-005-0237-z
Reference
  Authors
Strack D, Vogt T, Schliemann W
  Title
Recent advances in betalain research.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 62:247-69 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00564-2
Reference
  Authors
Vogt T
  Title
Substrate specificity and sequence analysis define a polyphyletic origin of betanidin 5- and 6-O-glucosyltransferase from Dorotheanthus bellidiformis.
  Journal
Planta 214:492-5 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-001-0685-1
KO pathway
ko00965   
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