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Biosynthesis of amino acids
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple pathways for lysine biosynthesis and multiple gene sets for arginine biosynthesis.
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map01230  Biosynthesis of amino acids

Ortholog table
M00002  Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:map01230]
M00005  PRPP biosynthesis, ribose 5P => PRPP [PATH:map01230]
M00007  Pentose phosphate pathway, non-oxidative phase, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:map01230]
M00010  Citrate cycle, first carbon oxidation, oxaloacetate => 2-oxoglutarate [PATH:map01230]
M00015  Proline biosynthesis, glutamate => proline [PATH:map01230]
M00016  Lysine biosynthesis, succinyl-DAP pathway, aspartate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00017  Methionine biosynthesis, apartate => homoserine => methionine [PATH:map01230]
M00018  Threonine biosynthesis, aspartate => homoserine => threonine [PATH:map01230]
M00019  Valine/isoleucine biosynthesis, pyruvate => valine / 2-oxobutanoate => isoleucine [PATH:map01230]
M00020  Serine biosynthesis, glycerate-3P => serine [PATH:map01230]
M00021  Cysteine biosynthesis, serine => cysteine [PATH:map01230]
M00022  Shikimate pathway, phosphoenolpyruvate + erythrose-4P => chorismate [PATH:map01230]
M00023  Tryptophan biosynthesis, chorismate => tryptophan [PATH:map01230]
M00024  Phenylalanine biosynthesis, chorismate => phenylalanine [PATH:map01230]
M00025  Tyrosine biosynthesis, chorismate => tyrosine [PATH:map01230]
M00026  Histidine biosynthesis, PRPP => histidine [PATH:map01230]
M00028  Ornithine biosynthesis, glutamate => ornithine [PATH:map01230]
M00029  Urea cycle [PATH:map01230]
M00030  Lysine biosynthesis, AAA pathway, 2-oxoglutarate => 2-aminoadipate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00031  Lysine biosynthesis, mediated by LysW, 2-aminoadipate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00033  Ectoine biosynthesis, aspartate => ectoine [PATH:map01230]
M00040  Tyrosine biosynthesis, prephanate => pretyrosine => tyrosine [PATH:map01230]
M00338  Cysteine biosynthesis, homocysteine + serine => cysteine [PATH:map01230]
M00345  Formaldehyde assimilation, ribulose monophosphate pathway [PATH:map01230]
M00432  Leucine biosynthesis, 2-oxoisovalerate => 2-oxoisocaproate [PATH:map01230]
M00433  Lysine biosynthesis, 2-oxoglutarate => 2-oxoadipate [PATH:map01230]
M00525  Lysine biosynthesis, acetyl-DAP pathway, aspartate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00526  Lysine biosynthesis, DAP dehydrogenase pathway, aspartate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00527  Lysine biosynthesis, DAP aminotransferase pathway, aspartate => lysine [PATH:map01230]
M00535  Isoleucine biosynthesis, pyruvate => 2-oxobutanoate [PATH:map01230]
M00570  Isoleucine biosynthesis, threonine => 2-oxobutanoate => isoleucine [PATH:map01230]
M00580  Pentose phosphate pathway, archaea, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:map01230]
M00608  2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension, 2-oxoglutarate => 2-oxoadipate => 2-oxopimelate => 2-oxosuberate [PATH:map01230]
M00609  Cysteine biosynthesis, methionine => cysteine [PATH:map01230]
M00763  Ornithine biosynthesis, mediated by LysW, glutamate => ornithine [PATH:map01230]
M00844  Arginine biosynthesis, ornithine => arginine [PATH:map01230]
M00845  Arginine biosynthesis, glutamate => acetylcitrulline => arginine [PATH:map01230]
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