KEGG   PATHWAY: map02025
Entry
map02025                    Pathway                                

Name
Biofilm formation - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Description
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. The main key actors relevant in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa include cAMP/Vfr signaling, quorum sensing (QS) systems, Gac/Rsm pathway, and c-di-GMP signaling. cAMP/Vfr signaling regulates the transcription of hundreds of genes encoding diverse virulence factors, including the type 2 secretion system and type 3 secretion system and their associated toxins, type IV pili, and flagella. It is demonstrated that the accumulation of cAMP inhibits the attachment phase of biofilm formation. The QS systems are arranged hierarchically with the las system positively regulating both the rhl and PQS systems. These three QS systems are involved in the regulation of virulence factor production, biofilm maturation, and motility phenotypes. GacS/GacA two-component system is promoting the expression of two small regulatory RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, which sequester the translational repressor RsmA. Titration of RsmA induces the production of sessile and biofilm determinants, whereas free RsmA leads to a planktonic and more virulent lifestyle. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger. Synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP is facilitated by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE). High intracellular levels of c-di-GMP evoke the processes leading to the production of biofilm matrix, while a decrease in its level causes an increase in cell motility and transition into the planktonic forms of growth.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
map02025  Biofilm formation - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
map02025

Reference
  Authors
Coggan KA, Wolfgang MC
  Title
Global regulatory pathways and cross-talk control pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental lifestyle and virulence phenotype.
  Journal
Curr Issues Mol Biol 14:47-70 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Rasamiravaka T, Labtani Q, Duez P, El Jaziri M
  Title
The formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a review of the natural and synthetic compounds interfering with control mechanisms.
  Journal
Biomed Res Int 2015:759348 (2015)
DOI:10.1155/2015/759348
Reference
  Authors
Valentini M, Filloux A
  Title
Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 291:12547-55 (2016)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.R115.711507
Reference
  Authors
Hengge R
  Title
Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:263-73 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro2109
Reference
  Authors
Liang ZX
  Title
The expanding roles of c-di-GMP in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides and secondary metabolites.
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 32:663-83 (2015)
DOI:10.1039/c4np00086b
Reference
  Authors
Fulcher NB, Holliday PM, Klem E, Cann MJ, Wolfgang MC
  Title
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates intracellular cAMP levels by modulating adenylate cyclase activity.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 76:889-904 (2010)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07135.x
Reference
  Authors
Marsden AE, Intile PJ, Schulmeyer KH, Simmons-Patterson ER, Urbanowski ML, Wolfgang MC, Yahr TL
  Title
Vfr Directly Activates exsA Transcription To Regulate Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 198:1442-50 (2016)
DOI:10.1128/JB.00049-16
Reference
  Authors
Brencic A, Lory S
  Title
Determination of the regulon and identification of novel mRNA targets of Pseudomonas aeruginosa RsmA.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 72:612-32 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06670.x
Reference
  Authors
Hsu JL, Chen HC, Peng HL, Chang HY
  Title
Characterization of the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein B-mediated multistep phosphorelay system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 283:9933-44 (2008)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M708836200
Reference
  Authors
Guvener ZT, Harwood CS
  Title
Subcellular location characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGDEF protein, WspR, indicate that it produces cyclic-di-GMP in response to growth on surfaces.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 66:1459-73 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.06008.x
Reference
  Authors
Irie Y, Starkey M, Edwards AN, Wozniak DJ, Romeo T, Parsek MR
  Title
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix polysaccharide Psl is regulated transcriptionally by RpoS and post-transcriptionally by RsmA.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 78:158-72 (2010)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07320.x
Related
pathway
map02024  Quorum sensing
map02040  Flagellar assembly
map03070  Bacterial secretion system
KO pathway
ko02025   
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