KEGG   PATHWAY: map02026
Entry
map02026                    Pathway                                

Name
Biofilm formation - Escherichia coli
Description
Bacteria inhabiting a biofilm are protected from physical stress, antimicrobials, and the host immune system, and thereby cause severe medical, environmental, and technical problems. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli is regulated by two inversely controlled transcriptional feedforward cascades, the FlhDC/FliA cascade and the sigmaS/MlrA/CsgD cascade, which are active in post-exponentially growing and in stationary phase cells, respectively. Their final outputs, flagella production or the synthesis of the biofilm matrix components curli and cellulose, are mutually exclusive due to complementary sigma factor requirements, the abundant DNA-binding regulator FliZ, and opposite regulation by c-di-GMP. The RNA-binding protein CsrA, a central component of the global regulatory system, inhibits synthesis of the poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine (PGA) exopolysaccharide and glycogen and stimulates the expression of the flagellar master regulator FlhDC. CsrA activity is counteracted by two sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC. The lower figure shows that FlhDC, sigmaS, and CsgD, the transcription factors that control large regulons involved in flagellar and biofilm formation, serve as regulatory hubs for multiple environmental signal integration with a series of sRNAs providing distinct inputs.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
map02026  Biofilm formation - Escherichia coli
map02026

Reference
  Authors
Mika F, Hengge R
  Title
Small RNAs in the control of RpoS, CsgD, and biofilm architecture of Escherichia coli.
  Journal
RNA Biol 11:494-507 (2014)
DOI:10.4161/rna.28867
Reference
  Authors
Mika F, Hengge R
  Title
Small Regulatory RNAs in the Control of Motility and Biofilm Formation in E. coli and Salmonella.
  Journal
Int J Mol Sci 14:4560-79 (2013)
DOI:10.3390/ijms14034560
Reference
  Authors
Hengge R
  Title
Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:263-73 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro2109
Reference
  Authors
Chambers JR, Sauer K
  Title
Small RNAs and their role in biofilm formation.
  Journal
Trends Microbiol 21:39-49 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2012.10.008
Reference
  Authors
Martinez LC, Vadyvaloo V
  Title
Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms.
  Journal
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:38 (2014)
DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2014.00038
Reference
  Authors
Kalia D, Merey G, Nakayama S, Zheng Y, Zhou J, Luo Y, Guo M, Roembke BT, Sintim HO
  Title
Nucleotide, c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, cGMP, cAMP, (p)ppGpp signaling in bacteria and implications in pathogenesis.
  Journal
Chem Soc Rev 42:305-41 (2013)
DOI:10.1039/c2cs35206k
Reference
  Authors
Seyll E, Van Melderen L
  Title
The ribonucleoprotein Csr network.
  Journal
Int J Mol Sci 14:22117-31 (2013)
DOI:10.3390/ijms141122117
Reference
  Authors
Pesavento C, Becker G, Sommerfeldt N, Possling A, Tschowri N, Mehlis A, Hengge R
  Title
Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Genes Dev 22:2434-46 (2008)
DOI:10.1101/gad.475808
Reference
  Authors
Huang YH, Ferrieres L, Clarke DJ
  Title
The role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Enterobacteriaceae.
  Journal
Res Microbiol 157:206-12 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2005.11.005
Reference
  Authors
Li J, Attila C, Wang L, Wood TK, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE
  Title
Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli is signaled by AI-2/LsrR: effects on small RNA and biofilm architecture.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 189:6011-20 (2007)
DOI:10.1128/JB.00014-07
Related
pathway
map02024  Quorum sensing
map02040  Flagellar assembly
KO pathway
ko02026   
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