KEGG   PATHWAY: map04122
Entry
map04122                    Pathway                                

Name
Sulfur relay system
Description
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are signalling messengers that control many cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. It is suggested that Ub-protein modification evolved from prokaryotic sulfurtransfer systems. Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and thiamin are sulfur-containing cofactors whose biosynthesis includes a key sulfur transfer step that uses unique sulfur carrier proteins, MoaD and ThiS. Ubiquitin, MoaD, and ThiS are all structurally related proteins whose C-termini are activated through adenylation by homologous E1-like enzymes. s2T biosynthesis may share similar chemistry with Moco and thiamin synthesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Urm1 and Uba4 function as part of a ubl protein conjugation system, though they have sequence homology to bacterial sulfur-transfer enzymes and the ability to function in sulfur transfer.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Folding, sorting and degradation
Pathway map
map04122  Sulfur relay system
map04122

Disease
H00192  Xanthinuria
H01367  Infantile liver failure
Reference
  Authors
Noma A, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T
  Title
Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1335-52 (2009)
DOI:10.1093/nar/gkn1023
Reference
  Authors
Iyer LM, Burroughs AM, Aravind L
  Title
The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like beta-grasp domains.
  Journal
Genome Biol 7:R60 (2006)
DOI:10.1186/gb-2006-7-7-r60
Reference
  Authors
Schwarz G, Mendel RR, Ribbe MW
  Title
Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways.
  Journal
Nature 460:839-47 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nature08302
Related
pathway
map00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
map00730  Thiamine metabolism
map00790  Folate biosynthesis
map04120  Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
KO pathway
ko04122   
LinkDB

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