KEGG   PATHWAY: map04215
Entry
map04215                    Pathway                                

Name
Apoptosis - multiple species
Description
Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved process used by multicellular organisms to developmentally regulate cell number or to eliminate cells that are potentially detrimental to the organism. The major players are caspases, caspase inhibitors, members of the Bcl-2 family of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and adaptors of the Ced-4/APAF-1 type. Mammals, by comparison with Caenorhabditis and Drosophila, exhibit highly complex extrinsic and intrinsic pathways for apoptosis induction. However, recent analyses of whole genome sequences from cnidarians (e.g. Hydra) suggest that the caspase and Bcl-2 families were already highly complex in cnidarians and that Caenorhabditis and Drosophila lost many of the genes involved in apoptosis.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cell growth and death
Pathway map
map04215  Apoptosis - multiple species
map04215

Other DBs
GO: 0006915
Reference
  Authors
Fuchs Y, Steller H
  Title
Live to die another way: modes of programmed cell death and the signals emanating from dying cells.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 16:329-44 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nrm3999
Reference
  Authors
Kumar S, Cakouros D
  Title
Transcriptional control of the core cell-death machinery.
  Journal
Trends Biochem Sci 29:193-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2004.02.001
Reference
  Authors
Bergmann A, Steller H
  Title
Apoptosis, stem cells, and tissue regeneration.
  Journal
Sci Signal 3:re8 (2010)
DOI:10.1126/scisignal.3145re8
Reference
  Authors
Zmasek CM, Godzik A
  Title
Evolution of the animal apoptosis network.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5:a008649 (2013)
DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a008649
Reference
  Authors
Twomey C, McCarthy JV
  Title
Pathways of apoptosis and importance in development.
  Journal
J Cell Mol Med 9:345-59 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2005.tb00360.x
Reference
  Authors
Nicholson DW
  Title
Caspase structure, proteolytic substrates, and function during apoptotic cell death.
  Journal
Cell Death Differ 6:1028-42 (1999)
DOI:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400598
Reference
  Authors
Wang C, Youle RJ
  Title
The role of mitochondria in apoptosis*.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:95-118 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-genet-102108-134850
Reference
  Authors
Choi D, Woo M
  Title
Executioners of apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells: not just for cell death.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E735-41 (2010)
DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00696.2009
Reference
  Authors
Joza N, Kroemer G, Penninger JM
  Title
Genetic analysis of the mammalian cell death machinery.
  Journal
Trends Genet 18:142-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0168-9525(01)02618-X
Reference
  Authors
Yan N, Wu JW, Chai J, Li W, Shi Y
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of DrICE inhibition by DIAP1 and removal of inhibition by Reaper, Hid and Grim.
  Journal
Nat Struct Mol Biol 11:420-8 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nsmb764
Reference
  Authors
Reiter S, Crescenzi M, Galliot B, Buzgariu W
  Title
Hydra, a versatile model to study the homeostatic and developmental functions of cell death.
  Journal
Int J Dev Biol 56:593-604 (2012)
DOI:10.1387/ijdb.123499sr
Reference
  Authors
Lasi M, Pauly B, Schmidt N, Cikala M, Stiening B, Kasbauer T, Zenner G, Popp T, Wagner A, Knapp RT, Huber AH, Grunert M, Soding J, David CN, Bottger A
  Title
The molecular cell death machinery in the simple cnidarian Hydra includes an expanded caspase family and pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.
  Journal
Cell Res 20:812-25 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/cr.2010.66
Reference
  Authors
Lasi M, David CN, Bottger A
  Title
Apoptosis in pre-Bilaterians: Hydra as a model.
  Journal
Apoptosis 15:269-78 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s10495-009-0442-7
Reference
  Authors
Romero A, Novoa B, Figueras A
  Title
The complexity of apoptotic cell death in mollusks: An update.
  Journal
Fish Shellfish Immunol 46:79-87 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.03.038
Reference
  Authors
Potts MB, Cameron S
  Title
Cell lineage and cell death: Caenorhabditis elegans and cancer research.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:50-8 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2984
Reference
  Authors
Lee EF, Young ND, Lim NT, Gasser RB, Fairlie WD
  Title
Apoptosis in schistosomes: toward novel targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 30:75-84 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2013.12.005
Related
pathway
map04210  Apoptosis
map04214  Apoptosis - fly
KO pathway
ko04215   
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